Secondary Project Abstracts

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Flying Fingers

BEHAVIORAL & SOCIAL SCIENCES

My science fair project questioned whether or not pianists can type faster than people who don’t play the piano. To begin, I researched about muscle memory and how it works. I also found another person who did a project similar to mine. He gave people a typing test then asked about their musical background. Based on my investigation, my hypothesis was that pianists would type faster and have fewer errors. For my experiment I tested seventh grade students at my school. I gave three typing tests to 50 pianists and 50 people who aren’t pianists. The results were very interesting. My hypothesis was exactly correct by saying that pianists would type faster and have less errors than people who don’t play the piano.


Hot On The Market

BEHAVIORAL & SOCIAL SCIENCES

Experiment to determine if "saying" that something is brand name will effect it's perceived value?


Does Color Affect Memory?

BEHAVIORAL & SOCIAL SCIENCES

The purpose of this experiment was to see which colors would improve short term memory for both genders. This was tested in a small memory test in which there was an eight slide powerpoint. Each slide represented a different color. These colors included red, orange, yellow, green, blue, purple, pink, and a control slide which was black and white. Each slide had twenty clipart objects that were found online and chosen according to 20 categories. The test subjects were shown each slide for 30 seconds then were told to write down as many objects as they could remember. This was repeated for every single slide. We hypothesized that both genders would have the best memory performance in the colors yellow and green. However as we averaged our data we found that girls remembered the red objects best (7 objects), and boys remembered black and white objects the best (9 objects). We also found that girls had the worst average in yellow (6 objects) and boys had the worst average in pink (6 objects). Our hypothesis was not supported, but we believe our reasoning behind our hypothesis was accurate.


Effects Of Diet Induced Binge Eating On Behavioral Control Of Feeding

BEHAVIORAL & SOCIAL SCIENCES

Binge eating disorder is an important health issue to study as it has a rising prevalence in the United States of America and is linked to many other negative health concerns. This study gave three groups of rats intermittent, continuous, and no access to a sweet-fat solution (4% intralipid with 5% sucrose), for seven weeks, and tested them afterwards in a fixed ratio operant task (press the lever three times in order to receive access to a new rewarding solution of 10% sucrose) to analyze how a history of binge eating affects future eating behaviors. The results show that rats with prior intermittent access had a significant decrease in the latency towards licking the solution after completing the task, as well as a significant increase in the number of licks per bout and the length of the bouts compared to rats with prior continuous access. This indicates that a history of binge eating increases motivation to consume a new rewarding solution and increases the perceived palatability of said solution.


To Talk Or Not To Talk, That's The Question

BEHAVIORAL & SOCIAL SCIENCES

This project measures and assesses the degree of distracted driving caused by talking on a cell phone as compared to talking to a passenger in the car and with no talking distractions. The dangers of texting while driving are obvious, but many people think talking on cell phones is no different than talking to car passengers. This project will study and assess that assertion.


Emotional Super Bowl

BEHAVIORAL & SOCIAL SCIENCES

This project utilizes the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue), thirty musical participants, thirty athletic participants, thirty participants involved in both, and thirty participants involved in neither in order to determine whether sports or music has a stronger effect on an individual's level of emotional intelligence.


Memorizing

BEHAVIORAL & SOCIAL SCIENCES

I tested people to see what method helps them memorize information best.


Perception Of Knowledge

BEHAVIORAL & SOCIAL SCIENCES

The project tested one's perception of their own knowledge. The question being asked was does a person's perception of knowledge correlate with actuality. They were first asked "what they think they will get on the test". They were able to see the test and take as long as necessary to answer that question. Then the test takers were given four minutes to complete 13 questions.


Take My Advice

BEHAVIORAL & SOCIAL SCIENCES

ABSTRACT
My science project tests students at varying ages to see if they are more likely to follow a junior high student’s (me) advice, a trusted adult, (their teacher’s) advice, or if they would ignore the advice and choose the opposite option. Does age make a difference in how likely they follow advice? Are students more or less likely to listen to a trusted adult’s advice, versus a junior high student’s advice? I also have a control class in each grade with NO advice given.
In this experiment, two identical boxes are placed in front of a student. In group one (control group), the students are simply asked to choose Box A or Box B. In group two, I give the the advice to the student that they should choose Box B, but can do whatever they wish. In group three, the teacher advises the class to choose Box B, but that they can do as they wish. Their responses are recorded.
After winning second place in my division in my school, I decided to test each grade in a second round in preparation for the district competition. I wanted to see if the students were more likely to follow advice the second time around, knowing that the advice was “sound” or “good” based on the first time. I tested the same groups, minus the control group, but this time called the boxes “C” and “D”.
The results were interesting. The first grade students and the junior high students were more likely to listen to advice than the fourth grade students. But all students were more likely to listen to advice the second time around, after learning for themselves in the first round that the advice could be trusted.


White Bear Healthy Snack

BEHAVIORAL & SOCIAL SCIENCES

Will Stress Affect a Person's Cognitive Abilities and Decision Making Skills


Disconnection From The Stem

BEHAVIORAL & SOCIAL SCIENCES

We tested teachers to see if they had a subconscious bias against girls going into STEM fields.


Understanding “Compassion Fade”

BEHAVIORAL & SOCIAL SCIENCES

Compassion fade—decreasing sympathy and willingness to donate when the number of victims of a crises increases—has been invoked to help explain a variety of human failings, including our failure to take decisive action in the face of known genocide and to respond effectively to terrible humanitarian crises like the refugee crisis in Syria. Thus, a fuller exploration of this phenomenon is critical to solving the most important problems in the world—those that affect the most people.

Almost all of the existing research on compassion fade has been conducted on a relatively limited segment of the population: college students. This project explores whether this phenomenon can be replicated both among college students and among broader population cohorts. Both “within subject” and “between subject” survey methodologies will be used to test whether survey takers, solicited through the online survey tool Survey Monkey, would be willing to donate more to an identified individual child in need or to a larger group of children.

This project also investigates differences in compassion fade based on factors such as age, gender, parental status, and income level. Additionally, the project explores whether compassion fade is affected by how much a person cares about a particular issue (such as the Syrian refugee crisis or hunger in Africa) before being asked to donate or by how much a particular issue is currently in the news. Finally, the project also examines how using images of the child or children to be helped, rather than just text descriptions of them and their needs, affects compassion fade.


Is There A Preferred Feature Of An Enclosure For Captive Sandhill Cranes?

BEHAVIORAL & SOCIAL SCIENCES

During this experiment, I observed what habitat section captive Sandhill Cranes preferred within their enclosure at the Tracy Aviary. The independent variable was the six habitat sections, and the dependent variable was the amount of time the cranes spent in each habitat section. I believed that the cranes would spend the most time in the two prairie sections and the pond section because they resembled the cranes’ natural habitat. I tested my hypothesis by observing how long the cranes spent in each section in 30 minute periods. Overall I conducted 16 observations and calculated the mean, median, range, and total for each section across observations. The results suggested that the cranes preferred the two prairie sections instead of the hilly section, pond section, long grass section, and the shed section. These results may have been limited by the fact that the pond section was physically smaller than the other sections. In addition the cranes were only fed in the first prairie section, which caused they spent more time in that section. If the Tracy Aviary considers improving the Sandhill Crane habitat, based on these observations I suggested that more of the habitat be covered in prairie. I also recommended they enlarge the pond, because it is a necessity for the cranes.


Is It Faster To Train A Dog Using Praise Or Food

BEHAVIORAL & SOCIAL SCIENCES

I will be testing if it is faster to train a dog using praise or food by teaching them two simple tricks nod yes, and nod no.


Dogs And The Visual Cliff

BEHAVIORAL & SOCIAL SCIENCES

Abstract: In this experiment, dogs of varying ages, sizes, breeds, and genders were tested on a simple concept commonly referred to as a visual cliff. The tests were designed to observe depth perception in dogs. The four tests were repeated four times with each of the dogs in an A, B, A, B reversal design. The first test was fabricated to see how much time it required for the dogs to jaunt down the short six step staircase to receive a treat. This is the same staircase where the see through lexan platform would be placed shortly. The second test was just that, and the lexan platform was placed over the stairway. In this experiment, the dogs refused to cross to receive a treat. In the experiment proceeding, a piece of fabric was stretched under the platform creating the illusion of a solid surface. In this test, the dogs hesitated for a moment, then crossed to receive the reward at the end. In the final test, the same black and white patterned cloth was draped down the stairs to show depth. In this test the dogs again refused to cross. This shows that the dogs have a keen sense of depth perception.


Recycle Behavior

BEHAVIORAL & SOCIAL SCIENCES

Tracks recycling trends


How Does Talking And Texting Affect Driving Reaction Time?

BEHAVIORAL & SOCIAL SCIENCES

Over 2.5 million people in the U.S. are involved in road accidents each year. Of these accidents, 64% involve cell phone use by the driver. Because of powerful statistics like these, I was inspired to develop a related study. I came up with the problem question of How Does Talking and Texting Affect Driving Reaction Time? I hypothesized that texting and talking would increase driving reaction time. I predicted that texting would affect reaction time the most, followed by handheld talking, and then Bluetooth talking. I also hypothesized that newer drivers would have slower reaction times during the tests than experienced drivers. I tested 37 subjects ranging from 15 – 60 years of age. I used a driving simulator to measure and record each subject’s reaction time to a traffic light. Each subject completed a practice test, a texting test, a handheld talking test, and a Bluetooth talking test. Based on overall averages, both texting and talking increased (slowed) driving reaction time. Newer drivers (15-24 years of age) showed on average slower reaction times when talking, but not when texting. My research and my study had a huge impact on me and will definitely influence my choices when I start driving in the near future. It was exciting that many people who participated in this study said that they learned from doing this study and after, they would think twice before texting or talking when driving.


Race Recognition And Memory

BEHAVIORAL & SOCIAL SCIENCES

Our project is testing people's ability to remember a person's face, more specifically, how easily they remember/recognize faces of different races or ethnicity groups, opposed to those of their own.


Auditory Eg Gsperiment Culmination

BEHAVIORAL & SOCIAL SCIENCES

For this year's experiment my main objective is to see if audio stimulation (which has been shown to a have a measurable effect on the egg laying behavior on homegrown backyard hens) will have the same effects on commercial laying hens as well. After choosing an appropriate commercial operation, l selected three test populations of identical chickens, and subjected each of them to three different auditory conditions. (Classical music, sounds of natural predators, and no audio / null). Under these conditions, the eggs were counted every day at the same time, and the data was compiled over a three week period. At the end of the testing, I analyzed the egg production data to see if the auditory stimuli had similar effects on commercial chickens as it did my own backyard chickens.
The results of this experiment demonstrated that for commercial hens which are producing at maximum capacity (90+%), it became evident that no amount of auditory stimulation will cause chickens to produce eggs which would surpass their physical limits. The results showed that while there were slight variations in day to day quantities, there were no measurable trends as we saw in my backyard hens. The commercial chickens continued to lay at full capacity unfazed by any auditory stimulation throughout the experiment .
Although at first sight, it would appear that this commercial project failed to achieve the hoped for results, it has lead to a beneficial outcome useful and better conclusion by showing that the average backyard chicken owner can still benefit by using the audio stimulation to increase egg production.
In fine, this project has established that the positive effects induced by auditory stimuli are best applied in backyard non-commercial environments.


Does Hand Dominance Affect How You See Optical Illusions

BEHAVIORAL & SOCIAL SCIENCES

Does hand dominance affect how you see optical illusions? I predicted that right handed people would be able to see the  more accurately because research shows that  right handed people use their left hemisphere. The left hemisphere of the brain is used for comprehension and the right hemisphere is used for speech. No wonder that more than half of the subjects who saw the illusion were right handed. However, only 10 out of the 40 subjects were able to see the illusion. 4 out of the 10 who saw it were in fact left handed though.
        I began by having the subjects tell me their dominant hand, age, and gender. I would then explain what their task was and then start the timer. I would hand them the optical illusion and then write down observations. Afterwards I asked some questions. If I were to repeat this procedure I would have explained my concept further because several subjects were unsure of the purpose for it. I did observe a repeating pattern in several test subjects. I noticed that many males would use different angles to view the image. Those who had glasses on would sometimes take them off to see if it helped their viewing. But I do not know if any of these methods were affective.
        My results were different than expected but that made my project even more interesting to me. I found it interesting how specific groups of people (right handed, male, old, etc.) would each repeat a similar action in their process of viewing. Many questions have arisen throughout this experiment. An additional testable question developed during this experiment was, if the subject had already seen this kind of illusion before would that affect if they can see it? From the observations I took I have no ideas to whether or not that this aspect affected the experiment. This experiment has exposed me to new ideas and opened the door to science. I learned that experiments don’t always go as planned but we must continue through our difficulties.


Cookies+Patience

BEHAVIORAL & SOCIAL SCIENCES

WILL KIDS BE PATIENT IF REWARDED


Improving Reading Speed And Accuracy With Auditory Noises.

BEHAVIORAL & SOCIAL SCIENCES

The purpose of this project was to determine which of the auditory noises selected for the experiment would improve one’s reading speed and accuracy the most. The procedure included four tests each with a different auditory noise and the control group having no noise played. It was hypothesized that the third test which was the instrumental auditory noise would improve the participants reading speed and accuracy the most. The results disproved the hypothesis and instead only improved the accuracy of the participants the most out of the four completed tests. The fourth test which involved comparing the RHR of the participants and matching it to the BPM of the auditory noise being played was the test that improved the reading speed the most. In conclusion, my research produced various results for the improvement and alterations of reading speed and accuracy. It served to find ways to improve and help those who struggle with literature. As well as, ways that music can be integrated into the classroom to help the development of participant’s reading speed and accuracy.


Liar, Liar, Map On Fire: Using Color To Influence Perception

BEHAVIORAL & SOCIAL SCIENCES

My project is about how color can affect perception. If I ask students to identify the three hottest countries on a world map, will the colors used on the map make a difference? I started thinking about this question after reading that during World War II, the Nazis made propaganda maps showing themselves in powerful colors such as red and black, and showing their enemies (the Allies) in putrid colors, to remind people of vomit. My hypothesis is that students who receive multi-colored maps will choose the three orange (“warm” color) countries as the hottest countries more often than students who receive grey control maps will choose those same three countries. I think this will be especially true in the younger grades, as the equator typically is not introduced until at least 3rd Grade.
I used a world map as my base map. I sent maps to four grades (2nd, 5th, 8th, and 11th/12th) and 11 SLC Diocese schools. I sent half of the schools maps on which 10 of the countries were colored neutrally (“grey control map”) and I sent the other half of the schools maps on which those same 10 countries were colored to suggest a weather map (orange, blue, and grey; “multi-color map”).
The raw data show that the orange countries are selected more often as the “hottest” countries in every situation except for Argentina in 8th Grade and that as the grade level increases, the influence of color tends to decrease.
Statistics is a mathematical method that can be used to show if there is a true difference between two or more numbers, or if the difference may be explained by random chance. I evaluated the difference between the map results using a “Two Sample z-Test for the Difference Between Two Proportions.” These results show that color made a statistically significant difference in 2nd and 5th Grades, but that there is not sufficient evidence to conclude with 95% confidence that color made a difference in 8th and 11th/12th Grades.
My hypothesis is supported by the data. Color can be used to affect student perception of maps, especially in the younger grades.


The Effects Of Persuasive Messaging On Household Food Waste

BEHAVIORAL & SOCIAL SCIENCES

Have you ever thought about the food you throw away? Ever thought about what it could do for the planet? I thought about it, and conducted an experiment, primarily testing the effects of persuasive messaging on household food waste, but also testing intention and behavior. I gave three different groups of people different signs displaying types of persuasive messaging: Perceived behavioral control attitude towards doing the “right” thing, and no messaging. I then asked them to record their food waste for one week, along with their intention to reduce their food waste. After comparing the results from the groups, I found that Intention was greater influenced then the behavior, leading us to believe that behavior is not primarily controlled by intention. Each of the three messaging groups, including the control group, showed various, but nearly equal amounts of change throughout the week. Also influencing the data is various events and sources; like cleaning out your refrigerator or having guests may lead to increased amounts of food waste, even if intention says otherwise.


Nonresident Father Involvement And Child Wellbeing: A National Prospective Birth Cohort Study

BEHAVIORAL & SOCIAL SCIENCES

In the US, currently four in 10 children are born to unwed parents and many of these children are growing up without their biological fathers in residence. More research needs to be done to understand nonresident father's role in child development. This study examines the long-term effects of nonresident father involvement on child emotional, behavioral, social and cognitive outcomes and explore whether the child’s sex and father’s cooperative parenting moderate these effects. Data used in the analyses were from the Fragile Families & Child Wellbeing Study, a national prospective birth cohort study in the US particularly designed to study children born to unwed parents. Factor principal component analyses were performed to construct scales and multivariate linear regression models were built to examine the research questions. The results show that father’s sharing chores with mother at child age 5 corresponds to fewer internalizing (emotional) problems at child age 9 and father engagement with child at age 5 is associated with fewer externalizing (aggressive) problems and higher cognitive ability at child age 9. In addition, moderating effects are observed. The positive effect on cognitive ability of nonresident father’s sharing chore with mother is stronger for boys than for girls and the benefit of nonresident father engagement preventing against attention problems is manifested only when the mother perceives the father's cooperative parenting level being high. Nonresident father involvement can play a significant and beneficial role in the emotional, behavioral and cognitive outcomes among children from non-traditional families.


Accuracy Of Eyewitness Testimony

BEHAVIORAL & SOCIAL SCIENCES

Is eyewitness testimony accurate? In this project we tested that statement. Two classes of 30 seventh graders watched a short animation movie then took a survey on it. The first class took the survey right after watching the video while the second class waited 24 hours before taking the same survey. The first class had an average of 76.4% and the second class had an average of 68.83%. This proves eyewitness testimony can not be always accurate.


Captive Vs. Wild

BEHAVIORAL & SOCIAL SCIENCES

Golden Eagles are one of the largest birds of prey in North America, found mainly in the open country of the west. However, they have a much smaller chance of reaching a full lifespan in the wild. This experiment compared the behaviors of Golden Eagles held in captivity at Tracy Aviary Bird Park and in various locations around Northern Utah including Lehi, Cedar Fork, and Huntsville. Golden Eagles were observed for twenty minutes weekly for the behaviors aggression, social interaction, eating, grooming, and movement. Percentages were taken in each group on the frequency that each behavior was observed, and data concluded that golden eagles in the wild demonstrated more vigilant behavior than captive eagles as well as less social interaction, with 81.6% vigilance for wild eagles and 64.6% vigilance for captive eagles. But, captive eagles demonstrated social interaction more often than in the wild. These results supported our hypothesis that vigilance would be observed more in wild eagles because of territory protection, as well focus on obtaining food for survival, whereas captive eagles do not face those same threats due to containment and feeding within the park.


Brain Teasers Effect On Test Scores

BEHAVIORAL & SOCIAL SCIENCES

If, students are given brain teaser, the their test scores will increase. To test our hypothesis, we first had done some background research and wanted to test if brain teasers really did have an effect on test scores. Second, we started our experimental phase by handing out each student our science class a sheet of paper with 10 riddles/teasers on it for the students to complete. After the test was completed by the students, the test were collected and averaged. A couple weeks later we performed the same experiment except we changed on variable. Before we handed out the test, the students had to solve critical thinking problems to warm up their brains. Then right after the test, we handed out the similar test from our first time. After the test all the information was gathered and averaged. We came to the conclusion that our hypothesis was correct, the average of the scores turned out to be an increase from the first test, thus concluded our science project.


Using Mindfulness To Reduce Stress

BEHAVIORAL & SOCIAL SCIENCES

The purpose of our project is to find out if mindfulness (meditation) has an impact on students’ cortisol levels and academic performance. Students across the United States are stressed out due to demands of family, work, friends, and school. Several students neglect or cope with the pressure in unhealthy ways. Various sources are claiming mindfulness is a healthy meditation practice that reduces stress and increases attentive behavior. To test this, we took two 8th grade classes and had one group practice mindfulness (everyday, morning, 4-6 weeks) whilst the other group does not (independent variable). We then had the students provide initial and final saliva samples to measure cortisol (hormone use to measure stress, dependent variable). While the project was going on we took the students’ homework progress for mathematics and averaged the turn-in rate (dependent variable). The data says the mindful group cortisol levels (on average) increased by 2ng/g while the non-mindful group increased by a marginally small number of 0.2ng/g. The mindful groups’ homework turn-in rate decreased by 17%, while the non-mindful groups’ turn-in rate increased by 8%. Our results allow us to see the overall effect mindfulness had in our particular situation, which was an increase in cortisol, but decrease with homework performance. The data emphasizes the fact that our project would give significantly stronger results if long term due to our inconsistent data with the homework averages.


The Birth Order Effect

BEHAVIORAL & SOCIAL SCIENCES

It’s been debated and investigated over the past century whether birth order affects personality traits. Some scientists believe that birth order has an impact on a person’s personality and others believe there is no significant effect. The purpose of this study to gain new information on a very old and relevant question, “Does birth order affect personality traits?” After extensive research, it was hypothesized that birth order will have no significant effect on a person’s personality. The Big Five Personality test was used to survey 100 teens between the ages of 12-15 and gather percentages based on 5 broad personality traits: openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism. The data was then collected and inputted into an excel spreadsheet where the participants were divided into 3 categories: oldest, middle, and youngest children. The T-test was then used to determine the mean of each of the Big Five personality traits for each age group. The mean of each group was then used to derive the p-value and t-value which determined significance. It was concluded that oldest children are less conscientious, more extroverted, and less neurotic. Middle children are less extroverted and youngest children are more conscientious and more neurotic. Based on these results, the hypothesis was incorrect.


It's All In The Mind

BEHAVIORAL & SOCIAL SCIENCES

In school, students don’t perform to their best abilities on every test they take. This study investigated a way for teachers to help their students perform their personal best on all of their tests by using the placebo effect. If we give a group of second graders fruit snacks and tell them it will make then smarter, then their test scores will improve. To gain more knowledge about the placebo effect, we interviewed a psychologist, and did further research concerning the placebo effect. We tested second graders in three consecutive days with the same test. On the second day, we gave half of the test group fruit snacks and told them it would make them smarter. Some difficulties that we encountered included the size of our test groups were not the same and we only had three days to test them. In future studies, we would test the second graders for 30 consecutive days to collect statistical data. Our hypothesis was refuted because the second graders did not improve on their test scores overall. The test group scored an average of .67 percent less than the control group. Our project helps the community by informing teachers a way to help their students perform to the best of their abilities on all of their tests.


Using Simulation To Study The Electoral Effects Of Calexit

BEHAVIORAL & SOCIAL SCIENCES

Abstract: Using Simulation To Study the Electoral Effects of Calexit
Author: Jenna Rupper

Background: A Californian Independence Group has discussed seceding from the United States. There has been some national discussion about how California’s secession could affect the balance of power between Republicans and Democrats. The purpose of my project is to explore what would have happened in past presidential elections if California’s electoral votes were allocated to other states by answering the following research question: How would California’s electoral votes be reallocated according to census data and current accepted methods for allocation of electoral representation based on state populations? I hypothesized that if California’s electoral votes were redistributed according to the current method of equal proportions, then some recent elections would have resulted with a Republican as president instead of a Democrat.

Methods: I used the 2010 census records that have been used to determine the allocation of electoral votes for the 2016 and 2012 elections. Next, used Michigan University’s electoral college calculator (which used the Huntington-Hill method of equal proportions) and I adjusted California’s population to zero. I observed which states would have received California’s electoral votes. Then, I totaled the electoral college votes for both candidates. I repeated the same steps, using the 2000 census for the 2008 and 2004 elections and the 1990 census for the 2000, 1996, and 1992 elections. I analyzed my data by identifying how many electoral votes Democrats would lose with the absence of California. I identified if any election results would have changed, and I identified how many electoral votes were lost by the Democrats.

Results: After reallocating California’s votes Democrats lost electoral votes in every election between 1992 and 2016. For those years, a total of three percent of the electoral votes shifted from Democrats to Republicans. However, no election results were changed.

Conclusions: As opposed to my hypothesis, no election results were changed. However, the three percent shift could potentially change future presidential elections.


A Rose By Any Other Name

BEHAVIORAL & SOCIAL SCIENCES

People around the world are bombarded by statements, opinions and suggestions made by others, especially on social media. We researched how students are affected by the power of suggestion both positively and negatively. Our project tested this phenomenon using students' sense of smell versus our suggestions (what we told them the smell was). We researched how the power of suggestion was used in scientific and medical studies. We utilized websites and books to further our knowledge of the power of suggestion. While testing the students, we tested their sense of smell versus the power of suggestion. We used five different smells, doing two tests with the labels items being different each time. We observed that the students we tested seemed to follow the rules of the power of suggestion and believe what we suggested and not what they were actually smelling. In conclusion, we figured out that our test subjects believed the power of suggestion over their own sense of smell.


The Effect Of Environmental Factors On The Upregulation Of Dicer 2 Rna And Development Of Viral Entities Within Dicer 1 Inhibited Tetrahymena Cells

BIOLOGY & BIOCHEMISTRY

Tetrahymena thermophila is a single-celled eukaryote that possesses the remarkable ability of viral immunity. Tetrahymena has never indicated signs of viral infection in a lab setting. Our research investigates Tetrahymena’s viral properties through the analysis of the RNA pathways within the cell. Previous experiments have indicated that the Dicer-1 pathway may be linked to Tetrahymena’s immunity. When Dicer-1 inhibited cells were exposed to filtered pond water samples, with the intent of introducing waterborne virus, slowed population growth occurred, suggesting viral infection. However, population growth may not be an indicator of viral infection. Current research aims to identify phenotypes of infection within Tetrahymena cells though the analysis of physical and behavioral indicators of cells stress in addition to the upregulation of Dicer RNA when exposed to double stranded RNA and pond water.


Conquering Some Of Life's Most Common Messes

BIOLOGY & BIOCHEMISTRY

What would you do if you spilled on yourself and only had household products to get the stain out? My project is about stains and how to get them out. I tested vinegar, shaving cream, hydrogen peroxide, and Borax to see if they will get stains made by ketchup, mustard, coffee, and ink out. Using a timer and a bowl I washed the stains with the cleaners. After I tested every stain, I compared the results and recorded the data.


P16 Ink4 A Mutations In Individuals With Multiple Melanomas

BIOLOGY & BIOCHEMISTRY

Melanoma is the most dangerous of all skin cancers. It is a tumor of the melanin-forming melanocytes, located in the epidermis. Approximately 10% of melanoma patients have a family history, and germline mutations in p16INK4A (p16) are most commonly found. p16 functions as a tumor suppressor by negatively regulating the cell cycle. However, when p16 is mutated, this function is compromised and cells begin to proliferate rapidly. Individuals with mutations in the p16 gene have nearly a 70% risk of developing melanoma in their lifetime. To determine the status of p16 in patients with multiple melanomas, I sequenced both strands of the p16 gene from DNA of 26 individuals (each having three to 13 melanomas). DNA was isolated from saliva using a commercial kit protocol. Four PCR reactions were used to amplify a p16 region for sequencing. Five of these 26 patients (19.2%) showed a p16 mutation. These included three who had a G442A mutation in exon 2, resulting in an amino acid change (Ala148Thr). One patient had a G72C mutation in exon 1 resulting in an Arg24Pro change. Finally, one patient had a previously unreported T383C mutation in exon 2, resulting in a Leu130Pro change. Of the 5 patients with p16 mutations, two had three melanomas, two had four melanomas, and one had 13 melanomas. From this investigation, it is shown that p16INK4A mutations are associated with the occurrence of multiple melanomas. Identifying p16 mutations in patients with multiple melanoma enhances understanding of the genetic basis of melanoma.


The Heat Is On!

BIOLOGY & BIOCHEMISTRY

What can a person do to stop the effects of hot peppers after eating them.


B.O. Vs Race

BIOLOGY & BIOCHEMISTRY

An experiment was conducted to judge which of the three races would produce the most body odor when sweating. This was done by having participants wear cotton shirts while doing exercise. Every day for a week and a half, participants would rate one another's odor on a scale of zero to five. Each participant's results, of course, were very different.The high difference between races is thanks to the evolution of their ancestors. As individuals adapted to their environments, their genes would change to benefit the person. Daily analysis of the participants body odor demonstrated that the Hispanics had an odor more intense than the others. To be exact, the average for the Asians was a 1.25 on the scale. They were followed up by the Caucasians at 1.6, then with the Hispanics at 2.7. Further research may include marketing different types of clothing fabric for different races.


It's A Match

BIOLOGY & BIOCHEMISTRY

Morphology vs. DNA Sequencing


Bird Brained 2: Indicators Of Intelligence In Southern Ground Hornbills

BIOLOGY & BIOCHEMISTRY

The purpose of this experiment is to see what we can learn about southern ground hornbill intelligence from observing their responses to manipulative enrichment. In my study, I made manipulative enrichments for the captive population of southern ground hornbills at the Tracy Aviary (using approved materials), and then observed and recorded their responses to the enrichment. Date, weather and temperature were also recorded. I did eight trials on Sundays from September of 2016 to January of 2017. I recorded hornbill responses to the enrichment, and the different individual behaviors that the hornbills displayed. The three most common responses to the enrichment were to pull, tear, grab or lift the enrichment, to stab the enrichment with their beaks, and to watch other hornbills interact with the enrichment. Baby and Epic, the two juvenile hornbills, interacted with the enrichment the most. Mama and Whiner, the two adult hornbills, interacted with the enrichment the least. My data showed that the juvenile hornbills in my study interact with the enrichment more than adults, and that, when compared to traits that scientists have identified as indicating intelligence in birds, southern ground hornbills show many signs of being highly intelligent.


Picky Parasites An Investigation Of Columbicola Columbae Host Choice

BIOLOGY & BIOCHEMISTRY

Despite having one of the most common lifestyles on Earth, we know very little about most parasites. I am studying a parasite called Columbicola columbae which is a type of lice that lives on rock pigeons. This species of feather louse is relatively host-specific, but it is unknown whether this is due to natural selection or host choice by the parasite. I will be researching this. I placed lice on the feathers of two closely-related species (one of which is their native host). I looked at louse behavior on downy feathers (their food resource) and flight feathers (where they live). I watched the movement of lice on flight feathers, and looked at how much downy feather they ate from both species of birds. I found that they have no preference between the two species of birds when eating the downy feathers. They do have a strong preference for feral pigeon (their natural host) flight feathers over the ring-necked dove flight feathers. This tells us that there is a quality of the flight feather that the lice can sense or care more about than in the downy feathers. This mysterious quality in the flight feather has lead me to wonder what exactly that factor is. I would like to trick the lice by putting a pigeon scent on ring-necked dove feathers to see if it is a chemical aspect that leads the lice to know where exactly they are. I would also like do further experiments on downy feathers using feathers from birds that are not closely related to their natural host to see if the degree of host relatedness matters.


Does It Seem Cold To You?

BIOLOGY & BIOCHEMISTRY

In this project I will be performing an experiment to discover if your dominate hand is more sensitive to cold water. I thought that this experiment could be helpful for problems in the future if and or if there is a need to help those in dire situations. After I did the research, I believed that the dominant hand would be more resistant to the cold water. How I went about this was I had the person I was testing place their hands in the water at different times and see how long the could keep it submerged. In the end I found that on average they were able to keep their dominate hand in for longer. During this experiment I found that the stubbornness of those people in question, had affected the amount of time they allowed their hand to stay emerged. I also found that the amount of exposure they had to other people and entertainment were able to leave their hand in as well.


Toxic Streets

BIOLOGY & BIOCHEMISTRY

Does the chemical and salt mixture effect wildlife? for my experiment I uses Daphnia Magna to test the toxicity in melted snow off the side of the road.


Electro Power

BIOLOGY & BIOCHEMISTRY

The project investigates whether currently marketed electrolyte replenishing beverages really provide as many replenishing ingredients as they say they do. Also, the store-bought drinks are compared to homemade electrolyte solutions. The project also investigates the electricity each conducts.


Cellular And Genetic Mechanisms Connecting Biological Rhythms And Touch Based Response In C. Elegans

BIOLOGY & BIOCHEMISTRY

The organism Caenorhabditis elegans is often used as a model for genetic and epigenetic research; humans and C. elegans share important characteristics which allow research on these worms to be applied to human genetics and physiology. C. elegans also has 81 muscle cells, and a central nervous system which controls them – one important aspect of this control is a pacemaker cell in the digestive systems, which creates the C. elegans biological clock controlling its defecation cycle. Humans also have several fundamental biological clocks; notable ones include circadian rhythms and pacemaker cells in the heart. Cab-1 is a protein in C. elegans which has been shown to regulate exocytosis of dense-core-vesicles, which contain neuropeptides and hormones which control function and physiology. It thus also has significant control over the defecation clock pathway. The primary research question is to discover how Cab-1 mutation and rescue can connect biological clocks and touch-based responses. The hypothesis is that Cab-1 functions in two main parts of C. elegans – in the central nervous system, or nerve ring, and the cluster of pacemaker cells in the intestine. Cab-1 in these two parts will regulate the clock reset and defecation, respectively. Through methods including defecation clock assays, touch assays, gene recombination, and behavioral assays, Cab-1 was shown to function separately in the nerve ring and intestine of C. elegans. In the intestine, it worked to rescue the phenotype of steady defecation, but did not work to reset the defecation cycle of the worm after touch. Other touch response behavior was also not rescued. In contrast, in the nerve ring – where the hypothesis was shown to be incorrect - Cab-1 worked to rescue the behavioral phenotypes of response to touch, as well as regular defecation. However, it did not rescue the phenotype of resetting the defecation cycle; it only caused the worm to miss one or several defecations in the same cycle. This indicates that other proteins may be assisting the reset
process; Cab-1 may only be responsible for the defecation itself, rather than the reset. Further research on specific neuropeptides in this pathway is currently being conducted.


Cell Phone Radio Waves And Neural Stem Cell Differentiation

BIOLOGY & BIOCHEMISTRY

We tested whether energy from cell phones damaged mouse neural stem cells ability to differentiate into other cells after being exposed to cell phone radiation/frequency for 5 days.


Does Bagged, Fresh, Or Frozen Spinach Contain More Bacteria?

BIOLOGY & BIOCHEMISTRY

I am testing to see if frozen, fresh, or bagged spinach contains more bacteria. I predict that the bagged spinach will contain more bacteria than the other two divisions. I also believe that the frozen spinach samples will contain the least amount of bacteria due to the cold environment they’re packaged in.
First, acquire the needed materials. Then label and mark the petri dishes into the correct sectors until all the dishes are marked. Next, swab the positive control and swab it into the positive control sector. Repeat this step until in all fifteen dishes are swabbed. Then swab the coordinating spinach samples onto the largest sector. Next, place the dishes in an incubator for forty-eight hours at thirty-seven degrees Celsius. Finally, record your observations and take photographs. If you desire to gram stain the samples, ask a professional to aid and instruct you.
BF 2 and BF 3 contained no sign of life. BF 4 was gram positive. BUF 3 had fungus growing in the negative control. UBUF 5 had bacteria spread out into both the positive and negative quadrants. The BF samples had the least amount of bacteria and the UBUF samples had the most.
My hypothesis was proven half incorrect and half correct. The frozen spinach did have the least amount of bacteria, but the fresh spinach contained the most bacteria, not the bagged spinach. If I were to conduct this experiment again I would check to see if the positive control was alive, take more photos of the grain staining process, and expand the sample size.


Foraging Behavior In Camponotus Moduc Populations

BIOLOGY & BIOCHEMISTRY

I researched the foraging behavior of an ant colony in relation to the distance of a newly introduced food source. I wanted to see if these behaviors could be modeled mathematically. I found that distance does not have an effect on the foraging behavior of a colony. I also found that the ants exhibit an interesting antenna rubbing behavior before they eat. I found that this behavior can not be modeled the way that I had hoped.


Co Culture Of Endophytic Fungi To Induce Novel Antimycotic, Antibacterial, And Antiviral Compounds

BIOLOGY & BIOCHEMISTRY

Fungi contain a vast number of genes involved in natural product biosynthesis. However, under standard monoculture conditions they are only producing a fraction of the natural products they are capable of expressing. This may occur because the genes which control natural product biosynthesis are often remain unexpressed unless a certain cue is present. Biologists propose that if these natural products play an important role in biological warfare, then these genes may remain unexpressed unless natural competitors are present. If natural competition results in the creation of novel compounds in a fungi to protect against or harm competing organisms, and two naturally competing fungi are co-cultured, then I hypothesize that useful novel compounds may rise from that competition. To scan the fungi for these novel compounds, the fungi were grown in monocultures and co-cultures then separated into four partitions that examined the compounds created in different parts of the fungi. The samples were then run through High Performance Liquid Chromatography and a Mass spectrometer to scan the samples for interesting compounds with potential medicinal properties. These scans found that many of the known compounds created in the co-cultures had antibiotic and anti-fungal properties suggesting that these compounds are used for a chemical warfare. Unidentified compounds were similar to compounds with anti-inflammatory, antibiotic, anti-fungal, and many other medicinal properties that suggest they could be helpful in further research for antibiotics.


Tiny Brains

BIOLOGY & BIOCHEMISTRY

We wanted to see how different human drinks would effect the mouse brain. Pat research shows that the human and mouse brain are alike in many ways.


Physarum Polycephalum: Can It Recreate A Pipeline Map

BIOLOGY & BIOCHEMISTRY

For my project I used Physarum Polycephalum to re-map the Lake Powell Pipeline. The pipeline that I chose to use for my project is a 139-mile, 69-inch buried pipeline. I attempted to show that the Physarum Polycephalum could recreate the water pipeline because it has evolved to find the shortest path, or path of least resistance between food sources. The pipeline that was chosen was the Lake Powell Pipeline because the waterline is still undergoing approval to be built. If I place the Physarum Polycephalum onto a pipeline map of the pipeline, and place food sources at all water treatment facilities, pump stations, regulation tanks, hydro stations, and sharp turns of the desired pipeline, then the Physarum Polycephalum is expected to improve the pipeline’s efficacy. To perform this project I placed the pipeline map on the bottom of the petri dishes and Legos to create a barricade so the Physarum Polycephalum could not enter specific areas, such as tribal lands. With the data that I have collected thus far, I have not gotten a single usable Physarum Polycephalum created map before the dishes become contaminated.


Which Method Of Food Preservation Prevents Bacteria Growth The Best

BIOLOGY & BIOCHEMISTRY

Abstract

The question that I was testing in my experiment was “Which Method of Food Preservation Prevents Bacteria Growth the Best?” After conducting some background research, I hypothesized that the least bacteria would appear on the canned apple because canning destroys most of the problem causing bacteria is destroyed in the heat processing.

To perform my experiment, I treated the cut apples by freezing, refrigeration, canning, baking and one cut, untreated apple left on the windowsill. I let them sit for one week. After one week, I went to a laboratory and took a bacteria sample of each aged apple. I also took a sample of an unaged apple to use as my control. I let the Petri dishes incubate in the LAB overnight. In twenty-four hours, bacteria grew and I was able to quantify the data. To do this, I took the dishes and traced the area the bacteria covered onto graph paper. Each Petri dish was divided into four quadrants so I was able to calculate the area filled in each. I then turned the area into a percent of the whole dish covered by bacteria.
To analyze my data, I put the information I collected in a table and then a bar graph. The results that I found where that the most bacteria growth was on the untreated aged apple, which had 89.63% of its dish covered. The treated and aged apple with the least growth was the canned apple where only .24% of the dish was covered. This data led me to the conclusion that the best to least methods of food preservation, according to amount of bacteria grown, were as follows: canned, frozen, refrigerated, and baked


Is The Dyson Air Blade Sanitary?

BIOLOGY & BIOCHEMISTRY

This project measures what is more sanitary the Dyson Air Blade or a Paper Towel Dispenser. I took bacteria samples (With a Sterile Swab and Air tight sample bag) from both machines and cultures them in a lab. The results were astounding! The findings were that the Dyson harbors significantly more bacteria than the paper towel dispenser. Proving my Hypothesis correct. I believe this Machine should be taken out of public restrooms due to its the enormous amount of bacteria it spreads.


Is Eat Cleaner All Natural Fruit And Vegetable Wash More Effective In Reducing Bacteria On Apples, Grapes, And Tomatoes Than Rinsing The Produce With Water Alone?

BIOLOGY & BIOCHEMISTRY

The purpose of my science fair is to determine if Eat Cleaner All Natural Fruit and Vegetable Wash is more effective in reducing bacteria on apples, grapes, and tomatoes than rinsing the produce with water alone? I hypothesize that rinsing with Eat Cleaner will not eliminate more bacteria on the produce than rinsing with tap water. The independent variable is the type of rinse used on the produce either tap water or Eat Cleaner, and the dependent variable is the amount of bacteria that develops in the petri dishes.
My experimental procedure involves testing apples, grapes and tomatoes for bacteria after they are: (1) not treated; (2) rinsed with water and; (3) sprayed with Eat Cleaner. The produce is treated, swabbed and placed in petri dishes for germination. After three days, the petri dishes are examined to determine the amount of bacteria present. Graphs are created to calculate the percentage of area covered by bacteria and to determine which treatment is most successful in eliminating bacteria.
Based upon my results and the data collected, my hypothesis is proven correct. My data indicates that the amount of bacteria on the produce decreased after rinsing with water as opposed to no treatment. With a few exceptions, the amount of bacteria also decreased when the produce is sprayed with Eat Cleaner. Thus, while rinsing with water and spraying with Eat Cleaner is more effective in reducing bacteria than no treatment at all, the use of Eat Cleaner is not significantly more effective than rinsing produce with water alone.


Production Of Abd I Tep Through E. Coli Expression System

BIOLOGY & BIOCHEMISTRY

Vaccine carriers have empirically been proven to increase the potency and efficiency of vaccines but there is a clinical need for a more effective carrier for these vaccines. Through utilizing and engineering iTEPs, they are immune tolerant and can be a feasible method to carry drugs or vaccines throughout the human body. Albumin binding domain-immune tolerant elastin-like polypeptide (ABD-iTEP) has the ability to bind to the protein albumin in blood. ABD-iTEP can attach to albumin, and this protein can be transported throughout the body. It was hypothesized that if the DNA of E. coli was transformed to produce ABD (albumin binding domain) -iTEP (immune-tolerant elastin-like polypeptide) and the process of inverse transition cycling was used on the protein, then it would be sufficiently isolated and purified, having the ability to become a vaccine carrier, due to its albumin-binding property. To test this hypothesis, the DNA of ABD and iTEP were digested. The two DNA fragments were ligated on the same plasmid, becoming ABD-iTEP. The DNA of competent DH5a E. coli were transformed to express the gene for ABD-iTEP. The DNA was extracted. The perfectly replicated E. coli were cultured. The ABD-iTEP was then purified and isolated from the E. coli through multiple trials of ITC, as shown through the absence of a pellet and transparency. Using MSA, a protein gel was run which showed the bends for both the MSA and MSA/ABD-iTEP complex.With a protein gel, it was confirmed that ABD-iTEP could bind with albumin through the MSA/ABD-iTEP complex. Because the protein is able to bind to albumin, it can circulate throughout the bloodstream and contribute to the immune system’s ability to fight off cancer and other infectious agents through its role as a vaccine carrier.


Exploiting The Metabolic Potential Of Marine Actinomycetes For Antibiotic Discovery

BIOLOGY & BIOCHEMISTRY

Marine actinomycetes are filamentous bacteria derived from a water source that are of particular interest for new antibiotic agents because of their chemical diversity. The demand for new antibiotics is more pressing than ever due to recent occurrences of pathogens resisting antibiotic influence. The Winter laboratory focuses on organisms from the Great Salt Lake to investigate their potential as therapeutic agents. It is hypothesized that if the organisms isolated from extreme environments possess different chemistry than previously discovered organisms, shown through genomic sequencing and challenge experiments, then they will be more likely to produce antibiotic agents. The strains were cultured on yeast peptone mannitol (YPM) media and YPM with salt media and incubated at 30°C. After 8 days, the strains were thriving in YPM with salt media, and minimal growth for most strains on the YPM plates was observed. However, strands 13 and 17 yielded no growth on YPM plates, allowing it to be deduced that these strains require extreme salt content for growth, supporting the hypothesized notion that these organisms are chemically diverse, and therefore more likely to produce antibiotic agents. Polymerase Chain Reaction was started using GSL-27 RNA samples at timepoints 48 hours and 72 hours and challenged with GSL-6B. DNA amplification was observed in all samples at 48 hours. The samples have been submitted for genomic DNA sequencing and results are pending. Once results are obtained, further information can be deduced. Finding out more information about these samples can only lead to further exploration of new antibiotics.


Effectiveness Of Whitening Agents On Sea Biscuits 2 Types Of Stains, The Amount Of Lumens, With Repeated Staining & Usage Of Product

BIOLOGY & BIOCHEMISTRY

Determining the effectiveness of whitening agents on Sea Biscuits using 2 Types of Stains (tea and grape juice) using different levels of lumens. Measured how well the top 5 products from the first part of the experiment did at preventing re-staining when alternating tea & product.application. Tested what is believed to be the chemical in the whitening agents that whitens the sea biscuits to see if it supported the hypothesis.


Directing Neural Stem Cell Differentiation Through Engineering The Extracellular Matrix

BIOLOGY & BIOCHEMISTRY

The discovery of NSCs in the adult brain led to the quick recognition of their therapeutic potential in many neurological conditions that are characterized by the progressive loss of neuronal populations such as Parkinson’s disease, spinal muscular atrophy, and Alzheimer’s disease. NSCs can be used to derive and replace the lost populations and desirably, the transplanted cells will not only be functional but also integrate with existing circuitry. Despite the positive outcomes of NSCs transplantation in early clinical trials, other reports of tumor formation and failure of cell integration raises caution against the safety and efficacy of NSC therapy. NSCs behavior is heavily dependent on their microenvironments and interactions with the extracellular matrix (ECM). The lack of thorough understanding of these interactions at the molecular level has impeded the progress of NSC therapy from bench to bedside. GAGs are linear sulfated polysaccharides found ubiquitously in the ECM, and have been demonstrated to play pivotal roles in regulating many cell-ECM interactions and signaling pathways. GAG type and specific structures have also been reported to play important roles in regulating neuronal development. In this study, we seek to understand the role of GAGs in NSCs differentiation and growth through the modulation of GAG biosynthesis using small molecules known as click-xylosides. Depending on the chemical structure of their aglycone group, click-xylosides utilize endogenous cell proteins to make GAG chains of different types and fine structures. Here, we show that GAG remodeling in the ECM during NSCs differentiation with different xylosides can alter the neuron to glial population, and the morphology of the neuronal network. The effect of the xylosides were dependent on their chemical structures, dosage, and time of administration. In summary, xylosides, which are primers of GAG biosynthesis, can be used to manipulate NSC cell fate and are also great tools for understanding the role of GAG variants in directing NSC differentiation.


Measuring Energy Levels Of Nucleotides Binding To Dna In Prebiotic Replication

BIOLOGY & BIOCHEMISTRY

One hypothesis in prebiotic replication states that free nucleotides could have bound noncovalently to the ends of a sequence to extend the structure and form DNA known today as the main storage device for genetic information. In this molecular dynamics simulation study of free nucleotides binding to a 5’ overhang trailing end of a DNA sequence, the position of the nucleotide in relationship to the trailing end is studied and the total change in energy of the system is measured to evaluate the stability of the noncovalent interactions in each system. This represents a model of prebiotic replication and simulates a free nucleotide manually placed in the overhang and observing the binding affinity between the nucleotide and the trailing end of the DNA sequence. The results obtained agree with the hypothesis and suggest that base pairs and complimentary pairs have the highest binding affinity, showing that these create a more stable structure. This is expected, as the Watson Crick base pairs create the most stable structure, and shape complementarity states purines have a higher affinity to pyrimidines.


Big Or Small, Who Wins It All

BIOLOGY & BIOCHEMISTRY

By separating and examining the DNA of a person, you can come to a conclusion of what substance has been in their system or if the DNA of that suspect matches that of the crime scene. Forensics is a scientific technique that can lead to the detection of a crime. Whether or not the size of the sample being tested affects how it moves through the gel was an idea pondered upon. The objective of the experiment is to discover if the weight of a simple dye samples would affect their migration speed in seconds and their distance in centimeters through an electrophoresis chamber. The dyes tested were red, blue, and yellow because they are primary colors and have simple structures. It was hypothesized that if the dye sample weighed more, it would move slower and travel less than a dye sample that had a lighter molecular weight. A Bionexus standard weight marker was used to determine the molecular weight of each dye sample depending on where they stopped.
The results showed that the less molecular weight a substance contained, the faster and further it would migrate through the chamber. Red weighed the least of all the dyes and traveled the furthest distance while simultaneously staying the fastest. Yellow weighed second most and traveled only a slight less far and slower than the red. Blue was by far the largest dye, moved almost twice as slow as the other two samples, and stayed the furthest behind. The original hypothesis was not supported nor supported through this experiment. This is because the dyes were unmeasurable by the control. However, the experimenter was still able to determine whether the charge per mass affected its migration speed and distance; it did.


Colors In Your Peripheral Vision

BIOLOGY & BIOCHEMISTRY

Scientists agree than most humans color vision is best and central vision and is far less sensitive in the peripheral I decided to test the limits of color detection IMPRA for a vision with a homemade version of my vision protractor well I was doing this I realize my hypothesis was mostly incorrect humans between the ages 20-29 did see the blue early as I predicted and the road was close but I was very surprised the stripes or not to talk to you earlier the reason I am so confused about that is because you use rods to see shapes before you use comes to detect colors


To Taste Or Not To Taste

BIOLOGY & BIOCHEMISTRY

In science class, I was learning about genetics and how certain traits are passed down from parents to offspring. Then, I wondered if maybe lesser thought of traits such as the sense of taste can be inherited as well, and if maybe the sense of taste plays any role in an obese person’s condition. From my research, I hypothesized that the sense of taste was going to be genetically inherited.
To find if the sense of taste was genetically inherited, I ordered 800 strips of taste testing paper. I had 200 of 4 types of taste test strips, (a control, phenylthiocarbamide (PTC), thiourea, and sodium benzoate). The control paper was tasteless. The PTC paper was either bitter or tasteless (depending on the taster’s genetics). The thiourea paper was either bitter or tasteless (depending on the taster). The sodium benzoate paper was salty, bitter, sweet, or tasteless. I did taste tests using these materials with individuals from 11 families, as well as collecting personal data including height and weight from each.
My hypothesis of the sense of taste being genetically inherited was true. My data showed that the ability to taste was a dominant trait, while the lack of this ability was recessive. My research indicated that about 70 percent of all of the tested people should be tasters, while about the other 30 percent should be non-tasters. All my data followed this rule. Without additional data collection, I could only weakly suggest that most obese people were non-tasters for PTC only.


Can You Hear Me Now?

BIOLOGY & BIOCHEMISTRY

In the United States there are about 318.9 million people. Out of the 318.9 million people, about 48 million of them have some form of hearing loss.There are different forms of hearing loss. Sensorineural hearing loss is the most common type of hearing loss and can not be cured. It is the type of hearing loss associated with aging.Conductive hearing loss is caused by infection that harms the middle ear and can be fully or partially corrected. Mixed hearing loss is when there is damage in the outer or middle part of the ear along with damage to the inner ear. Mixed hearing loss can be corrected if cured before the condition becomes serious. After learning about hearing loss I wanted to test how different age groups could hear different frequencies.

In my experiment I wanted to find out if as peoples age increased if the number of frequencies they could hear decreased. To prove my hypothesis correct I tested peoples ability to hear. I tested this by playing high pitched frequency’s for six different age groups ( 10-19, 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-50, 60+). I identified five test subjects in each of these age groups and played a series of twelve frequencies to test their hearing. My results showed that the ability to hear high frequencies decreased as age increased. Only one person above the age of forty could hear above seventeen kilohertz. Everyone below the age of thirty could hear the seventeen kilohertz. Even though there were many variables in this experiment, such as previous exposure to loud noises and background sound, my hypothesis was proven correct.


Which Stain Remover Best Removes Enzymatic, Greasy, Particulate, And Oxidisable Stains?

CHEMISTRY

My hypothesis states that the Oxiclean Versatile Stain Remover will best treat enzymatic, greasy, and particulate stains because of its claim to be a flexible remover that removes all stains, but not treat oxidisable stains as well because of the absence of bleach. I believed the Oxiclean Max Force Gel Stick would best treat enzymatic, greasy, and oxidisable because it contains enzymes and surfactants, as well as bleach which will aid in removing the oxidisable stain. I predicted that the Tide To Go Stick would have the worst results in removing each of the four stains because it’s meant to be a quick and easy stain remover that requires no washing component and contains no bleach. Finally, I believed Shout Trigger would best treat enzymatic and particulate stains because of the presence of enzymes and builders.
In order to test my hypothesis, I stained sixteen squares of white cloth, four squares per each of the four removers, and used a light probe to measure the lux of each square after it had been washed. I stained each set of four cloths with mud, chocolate, butter, and wine-each fitting into a different category of the four types of stains. To remove these stains, I used Oxiclean Versatile Stain Remover, Oxiclean Max Force Gel Stick, Tide To Go, and Shout Trigger.
My experimental results showed that Oxiclean Versatile Stain Remover overall had the worst results compared to the other removers with an average lux of 205.1 , and served best in removing the oxidisable stains. The Tide Stick had fairly similar results as Oxiclean Versatile Stain Remover with an average lux of 209.3, but had the worst qualitative results overall. My data showed that Shout Trigger had the second best results, producing an average lux of 220.8, and served best in removing particulate and enzymatic stains. I was surprised this remover didn’t better remove the enzymatic stain chocolate because of it’s large quantity of enzymes and builders. The stain remover with the best results was the Oxiclean Max Force Gel Stick with an average lux of 222.1. It produced the most consistent results for each stain, and produced the closest lux for butter to the control of  249.5.
The results for each of the removers each proved my hypothesis partially correct. Oxiclean Versatile Stain Remover removed the enzymatic stain, chocolate, fairly well, but had the worst results for the greasy and particulate stains compared to the other removers’ results. Shout Trigger produced the best results for the particulate stain, but did not remove the enzymatic stain as well.  The Tide Stick produced the worst results qualitatively, in that I could easily see the stains, but did not have the worst average. I think the quantitative results were higher than I expected because of the presence of liquid on the cloths when I measured the lux. The Oxiclean Max Force Gel Stick produced the best results for chocolate and butter, but did not remove wine nearly as well. Through the use of averages I discovered that the Oxiclean Max Force Gel Stick was the best option for removing the four stains.


Corrosive Liquids

CHEMISTRY

How do common household liquids react when they come in contact with common household surfaces? Answering this question is important, especially when it comes to kitchen surfaces and appliances. Remodeling or designing the kitchen of your dreams is expensive! You'll definitely want to use materials that will stay dreamy and not get dreary through adverse chemical reactions. This project attempts to provide some helpful answers.


Permanent Marker Strength

CHEMISTRY

In order to test permanent marker strength, different brands of permanent markers were used to make marks on t-shirts. T-shirts were rinsed in either rubbing alcohol or nail polish remover, or washed with laundry detergent. The inks were then analyzed with a computer program to determine the change in vibrancy.


Chemistry On Carbon Nanoparticles

CHEMISTRY

The charge and mass of carbon nanoparticles can be observed using a range of frequency sweeps. The nanoparticles in the experiment were swept from a low to high frequency to determine if more symmetric peaks would be obtained at higher driving voltages.


An Eggsperiment: Removal Of Copper From Aqueous Solutions Using Eggshell Wastes

CHEMISTRY

Eggshell wastes could be promising adsorbing materials for the removal of Copper, a heavy metal, out of contaminated water. Proving the potential for this material could result in more affordable ways to both improve environmental conditions, as well as reduce the health risks of heavy metal contaminated water (notably Copper) on the human body. The experiment was conducted using eggshells, eggshell membranes, and eggshells with membranes. A spectrophotometer was used to analyze CuSO4 concentration. For a concentration of 3g/L CuSO4 with a 40 mL volume, a minimum of 25% of CuSO4 was removed in 5 minutes using eggshell wastes. These results indicate that eggshell wastes may be used to remove copper ions from water.


The Most Efficient Way To Make Biodegradable Plastic From Casein

CHEMISTRY

Using varying chemicals with varying pH levels to test which pH range was the most productive to turn milk into a solid substance where the process of manufacturing can turn this solid into a biodegradable plastic substitute. The protein casein is a very durable molecule that is inside of the lactose of milk. We are using this molecule’s reaction to acidic chemicals and heat to change the milk into a solid plastic-like substance. The difference of chemical formulas between regular petroleum-based plastic and casein plastic is that the casein has more of a durable bonding contrary to plastics bonding sequence.


What Amount Of Foam Is Created By Dropping Mentos Into Soda?

CHEMISTRY

I tried 4 different kinds of soda. Diet Pepsi, Dr. Pepper, Pepsi and Sprite. My hypothesis was Diet Pepsi would work the best because I thought it had the most sugar and carbonation in it. I wanted to do two different experiments because I needed to see which sodas work the best. So I tried all four of the sodas and Pepsi and Diet Pepsi worked the best. My part ‘B’ was to take a 500ml bottle then take a 2L bottle and put it at the top. I cut holes in each lids. Then I cut a hole in the top of the 2L bottle to drop the Mentos in, once I dropped them in I put a cork in the hole then let the foam rise. When I looked back my hypothesis was correct, Diet Pepsi worked the best. My Conclusion is that is kind of surprising, Diet Pepsi worked the best, when you think of anything Diet you would believe it to be a healthier choice.


Enzyme Catalyzed Reactions— What Affects Their Rates?

CHEMISTRY

I made a catalase solution out of potatoes, then when I make the solution I will be testing it on Hydrogen Peroxide at different temperatures
I tried to figure out how the Enzymes in our liver extract harmful chemicals like hydrogen.


How Do Different Solvents Affect Orbeez?

CHEMISTRY

Background: Orbeez are small polymer beads made up of sodium polyacrylate. They are hydrophilic and can absorb water over 20 times more than their own weight. The effect of water on orbeez has been studied a lot, but the effect of other solvents on orbeez is not well known.
Objective: To study how orbeez are affected when they were put in different solvents.
Hypothesis: The solvent an orbeez is put in does affect the orbeez because different solvents are made of different molecules with different properties.
Method:
• Five (5) orbeez were placed in a beaker containing 400 ml of solvent; the different solvents included water, 70% isopropyl alcohol, vinegar (5% acetic acid), and milk.
• After 8 hours in the solvent, the following measurements were done (i) diameter of the orbeez (measured with a caliper), (2) weight of the orbeez (measured with a scale), and bounciness of the orbeez (measured with a camera).
Conclusion: My hypothesis both did and didn’t support the data that I collected from my experiment. The diameter and weight of the orbeez were significantly greater in orbeez treated with water than with the other solvents. However, there was no difference in the bounciness of the orbeez.


Holding Carbon Dioxide Captive

CHEMISTRY

Carbon dioxide makes up 76% of all human-emitted greenhouse gases, which trap heat in the Earth’s atmosphere, contributing to global warming. Carbon dioxide dissolved in water has acidic properties, which could be utilized to keep it trapped in solution and out of the atmosphere. This project’s objective was to see if passing carbon dioxide gas through acidic and alkaline solutions could affect the amount of carbon dioxide gas escaping those solutions. LeChâtelier’s Principle states that, in two-way chemical reactions, changes in reactants’ concentrations shift equilibrium, counteracting these changes. Applying this to carbon dioxide’s dissolving in water reactions, it was hypothesized that solutions of vinegar would slightly increase, baking soda would slightly decrease, and sodium hydroxide would considerably decrease carbon dioxide output, and that these changes would be greater with increasing concentration. A contraption was used to react baking soda and vinegar, producing a set amount of carbon dioxide, which then passed through three concentrations of each of the solutions described above (as well as distilled water for a control) and was then collected and measured in an inverted graduated cylinder. Results from four trials of each concentration showed distilled water, baking soda, and vinegar solutions all allowing about 90 mL of gas to escape and sodium hydroxide solutions allowing about 56 mL of gas to escape. With no remarkable difference between any material’s concentrations, the hypothesis was supported only for sodium hydroxide remarkably decreasing gas output. Therefore, sodium hydroxide could be extremely valuable as a filter for carbon dioxide emissions.


Can Mineral Oil Solidify Motor Oil?

CHEMISTRY

Motor oil is a hazard to the environment, and if during a car crash it's released into the water ways it can damage the environment. We believe there are material that we can use to nullify the oil. We found on forums that if antifreeze or mineral oil leaks into the oil pan that it can form chucks. We found that antifreeze was mistaken for mineral oil. We also found a government chemical that they use to clean a variety of spills, including oil. The government material is not possible to get even commercially, so we tested the mineral oil as well as mineral spirits to give us other possibilities. We took a sample of one of the motor oils that we chose and mixed in a bowl with either mineral spirits, mineral oil or both. The oils didn't work so we did some research and found that they add mineral oil to motor oil to keep it liquid. Since, mineral oil didn't work, petro bond was found to be able to solidify motor oil.


Which Reducing Agent Will Turn An Iodine And Starch Mixture Purple The Fastest?

CHEMISTRY

There are many things we forget are important for our health. One of them is the intake of iodine.Iodine is a necessary mineral found in most salts. I decided to test how long it would take iodine to turn purple when mixed with a reducing agent. I used corn syrup, hydrogen peroxide, and carrots.


Electroylisis

CHEMISTRY

My project is the process of electricity traveling through a instance and reacting with eletolytes in that substance and causing hydrogen to be released from the water.


The Optimization Of Electrolysis

CHEMISTRY

My project was designed to study the effects of pH, and Voltage on the rate at which electrolysis occurs. This could be important in the near future as a clean burning fuel in hydrogen fueled cars, specifically those that use Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cells. I was unable to gather definitive data in regards to pH due to time restraints induced by equipment malfunctions, and voltage data is limited for these same reasons, alongside the dissolution of my anode. I can however conclude that while voltage does increase the rate of electrolysis, voltage has a far more dramatic effect. In future I would like to use platinum electrodes, of which I didn't have access to, and test the effects of multiple molarity solutions of Sodium Hydroxide, and Hydrochloric acid.


Corroding Aluminum

CHEMISTRY

Corrosion happens to all metals, even aluminum which is the most corrosion-resistant. The objective of this project was to discover the effect of temperature on the corrosion of aluminum. I researched corrosion, oxide-coating, pH., and the electro-chemical process. There are about thirteen different types of corrosion. The one involved in my experiment was general corrosion which is corrosion at extreme pH. levels. There are about twelve different reasons why oxide coatings get damaged, one of them being because of high temperatures. It was hypothesized that the higher the temperature, the more corrosion there is. To do the experiment, a solution containing water, ferric chloride, salt, and vegetable oil was used to place an aluminum plate inside. There were five of these solutions at five different temperatures. These were room temperature, 45 degrees C, 60 degrees C, 75 degrees C, and 90 degrees C. The aluminum plate placed in the 90 degrees C solution had the most corrosion, while the room temperature solution had no corrosion. The hypothesis was supported since the highest temperature had the most corrosion.


Rust In Peace

CHEMISTRY

For my experiment I continually submerged and sprayed iron nails with solutions of salt water and fresh water. Along with my added distilled water submerged nail. My hypothesis is that I think that the nail that is fully submerged in salt water will end up rusting the most. From this esperiment I can conclude that the iron nail that was fully submerged into the salt water was the nail that rusted the most.


The Effects Of Flour In Cookies

CHEMISTRY

Cookies are a popular treat sold in almost every grocery store. They not only taste delicious but they always seem to look beautiful, too. Why is it that when you make cookies at home it can be very difficult to get them just perfect looking and tasting? The problem most likely has to do with the amount of flour that is added to the cookies. This project looks at flour and its many effects on cookies. Different amounts of flour were tested eight times on the same cookie recipe. My hypothesis was that higher amounts of flour would produce a softer, thicker cookie and lower amounts would give a thin, crispy cookie. The results of my experiment proved my hypothesis to be true because as the flour amounts got higher, the cookies rose more and were denser. Another project I would be interested in doing is how and what other ingredients affect the outcome of cookies.


Clean Solar Energy

EARTH & ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

Saving CO2 in air by using solar phone charges.


Effects Of Rising Salinity On Brine Shrimp

EARTH & ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

This science project explored the question, "How does rising salinity effect the hatching time for brine shrimp eggs." In this experiment, three different salinity levels were tested to see which was the best at hatching brine shrimp. I hypothesized that if there were higher levels of salinity there would be fewer shrimp hatched. Once the experiment was completed, the results showed that the containers with lower levels of salinity had more shrimp hatched. This proves my hypothesis to be correct. The results are demonstrated in the real world when too little water enters the Great Salt Lake and the salinity rises, causing the brine shrimp hatchings to decrease and leaving the migratory birds without enough food.


The Effect Of Albedo On Snowmelt Rate

EARTH & ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

In Utah, our mountain snowpack is important because it stores our year round drinking water. In Salt Lake City, 80% of our water supply comes from our snow pack. The snow pack melts slowly throughout the spring and summer, supplying creeks and filling reservoirs. Scientists used to believe that global warming was the only thing that was causing the Wasatch snowpack to melt, but now we know that particulate matter, “dust”, is also contributing to the melting. The melting rate of the snow is related to albedo. Albedo is the power of reflectivity. Lighter material has a high albedo, and darker material has a lower albedo. Dust on the snow absorbs the sunlight causing the snow to melt faster.
We wanted to find out if albedo and global warming actually were contributing to our snow melt. Our experiment measures how fast or slow our snow samples melted depending on how much particulate matter they contained. We went into the mountains and collected 4 snow samples for trial 1. We did the same thing again for trial 2. We then melted them and filtered out the matter. We found that in trial 1, our hypothesis was correct. The snow melted from dirtiest to cleanest. The dirtiest snow melted fastest. In trial 2, our hypothesis was correct for the first half of the melting period, but because of the ice content, or density of the snow which was greater in the samples with greater particulate matter, our samples melted from cleanest to dirtiest. The cleanest snow, which was light and fluffy, melted first.


Soil Loss Prevention

EARTH & ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

Soil loss is a problem in the world. It can cause loss of arable land, polluted water, and destruction of wildlife. I wanted to learn how best to solve it by asking what is the effect of different soil loss prevention techniques on the distance soil travels with running water. In my experiment, I ran water through soil and recorded how far it went. I tested a control (soil with no technique) and three techniques: walls (index cards), netting (hairnet), and plants (grass).


Relative Particulates From Automobiles

EARTH & ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

What type of car gives off the most pollution today? IN this experiment, we tested the amount o pollution that came out of four different cars. We then counted the number of particulates, or pollution molecules that come out of each of the cars. We found out that there were more particulates in the 2017 automatic than any of the other cars tested.


Chill Out: How To Cool Down Your Landscaping In A Warming World

EARTH & ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

Tested 5 common landscaping materials (grass, artificial turf, mulch, red brick, stone pavers) for heating speed and heat retention. Completed 3 trials for each material, starting at room temperature, turning heat lamp on and taking readings at 30 minutes and 60 minutes, then turning heat lamp off and taking readings at 90 minutes, 120 minutes and 150 minutes. Analyzed data to determine which materials heat up the most and which retain heat the longest and, conversely, which remain cooler and/or cool down more quickly.


The Correlation Between Presence Of Radon Gas In Residences And Diagnosis Of Type 1 Diabetes

EARTH & ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

Radon is a colorless, odorless gas that seeps through cracks in the foundations of homes and buildings, poisoning the air inside. As a known carcinogen, most research surrounding the toxin focuses on its ability to cause lung cancer, among other respiratory complications. However, radiation has been proven to cause Cytokine miscommunications within the immune system which can lead to induced-Beta Cell death. This immune system deficiency implies a possible link between the effects of radiation and a consequential diagnosis of Type 1 Diabetes. In order to expand previous knowledge of toxins and air pollution in Salt Lake, this analysis compares the presence of Radon Gas to the prevalence of diagnoses of Type 1 Diabetes across the Salt Lake Valley, aiming to bring society closer to understanding what may be triggering the auto-immune deficiency that results in diagnoses of this disease all over the world.


Predicting The Future: How Different Amounts Of Air Pollution Exposure Affects Lichen

EARTH & ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

The purpose of the project was to show the impact of air pollution and if it gets worse than it is now. Lichen, a fungus and algae working together, it’s known to be sensitive to air quality. The lichen will be used to test the air pollution, to represent the effects on living things if air quality were to get worse than it is today. This will be done by putting lichen inside a sealed box and connecting the gas exhaust of a Mercury Milan into the lichen box using a cardboard tube. The lichen were exposed to this for different amounts of time, data being collected each time. These times included 15 seconds, 30 seconds, 1 minute, and 3 minutes, also having 4 boxes with the corresponding time. The control group consisted of lichen left alone with only water to grow naturally. The results varied in health throughout the 14 days: from looking healthy on Day 7 and dry on Day 8. By using a likert scale to observe the health percentage, by photographs taken of the lichen throughout the 14 days. My hypothesis was that the lichen with the most gas exhaust exposure would die. The results did show a decrease in health which does relate back to the real world problem of building pollution. If gas exhaust has that effect on lichen imagine the effect it has on the world. To, conclude the purpose was a warning for air pollution, by using lichen.


Carbonated Water Vs Regular Water

EARTH & ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

Experiment about whether carbonated water or regular water makes corn plants grow faster.


Biodegradable Plastic Vs Plastic

EARTH & ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

Does Biodegradable plastic affect soil bacteria?


Measuring The Sensitivity Of Magnetostrictive Level Transmitter On Different Types Of Commonly Used Paper

EARTH & ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

The main purpose of this project is to research the rate of water absorption on different types of commonly used paper to determine how fast the detector detects leaks. This project matters to homeowners more because water leaks occur more often in houses leading to major damages and loss of money. I chose this project because I wanted to create an early detection for common water leaks in households, thereby preventing major damages. This project is important or significant to mankind because many homeowners receive a water leak once a year millions of people worldwide thirst for clean drinking water. This experiment was worth doing because if my house gets a water leak, I can use my data and prevent it. Not just my house but also other houses.


Evaluating Salt Lake County Watershed [Phase 1: Utilizing A Low Cost Method To Detect Polluted Surface Water Outfalls And Misconnected Drainage On The Jordan River]

EARTH & ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

The purpose of this project was to assess my local county waterway of its health, and run simple chemistry tests on collected samples. The hypothesis states that if the Jordan River is a safe and clean waterway, and I strategically place twelve low cost cotton samplers throughout the Salt Lake County at intervals down the Jordan River, then none should fluoresce under UV light and any chemical testing should return within acceptable Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) limits. The experiment consisted of placing twelve low cost cotton samplers at carefully chosen sites through the Jordan River Waterway. After leaving those samplers for a week, in situ, they were retrieved and multiple chemistry screening tests were run to determine whether the levels of various components were within EPA acceptable standards. Data collected showed that the hypothesis was not supported, in fact the data showed nearly the opposite. Collection sites closer to the airport, and busy roads showed much less chemical imbalances than the water directly downstream from the water reclamation facilities! This raises the question; could there be a misconnected drainage or possibly equipment allowing contaminated water out of the treatment plants? Real-world applications can definitely be made with this project! It’s everyone’s responsibility, as a human, to take care of our waterways. Because they are the lifeblood of our ecological systems, and without them, we would all be in serious trouble.


Global Warming And The Increase Of Water Temperature On Fish Populations.

EARTH & ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

I am measuring the amount of fish movement through an observational field. I am looking for the fish movement in the different temperatures in their tanks.


Using Food Waste To Help Improve Soil Moisture

EARTH & ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

Food wastes are causing a major economic loss to natural resources. Globally, 1.3 billion tons of food are being thrown out each year. Food wastes affect many ecosystems which affect many different food sources such as crops and plants. Crops and plants need water to be healthy. But drought is a global problem which threatens crops and plants growth. Agricultural hydrogel is used to fight with drought. However, it can cause cancer and is harmful to the environment. This project will investigate if the jellies made of different food wastes can affect the the amount of water in the soil to help fight with the drought.


Going Green As You Clean: Are “Green” Detergents Less Toxic Than Conventional Detergents

EARTH & ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

The purpose of this experiment was to determine if “green” products are safer for the environment than conventional detergents. My hypothesis states that if I have four detergents at different concentrations each (0%, 10%, 50%, 100%) and I place four Red Wiggler worms in each cup, then the worms with the more concentrated detergent will die, and the worms with the less concentrated solutions, will live longer. The detergents used for this experiment are Dawn, Palmolive, Method Dish Soap (Cucumber scented), and Method Dish Soap (Lemon Mint scented). The experiment was performed by taking sixteen cups, filling them with four tablespoons of Miracle-Gro Garden Soil, then one tablespoon with the appropriate concentration of the proper detergent. Four Red Wiggler worms were dropped in, and were left to sit for five days. When returned to, it became clear that the worms in the higher concentrations died sooner than the others, for the lesser concentrations still had alive worms in them. From this, my hypothesis was supported by the data. The worms died at a higher concentration of detergent, whilst the worms survived with the lower concentration. This proves that at a low concentration, these detergents are relatively safe to the environment. A limitation I had was it seemed there was not enough soil put into each cup. This may have been a factor to the worms dying faster than expected. Real-life applications that can be made, are that at higher concentrations, “green” detergents aren’t as environmentally-safe as they say they are.


Air Pollution And Its Affect On Aquatic Micro Organisms?

EARTH & ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

Studies have shown that pollution negatively effects human health. Pollution consists of several different compounds. Which compounds and what concentrations have negative effects on health still need further studies. The goal of this project is to determine whether pollution effects two easily studied organisms: daphnia magna and brine shrimp. If these aquatic organisms are sensitive to air pollution, then further studies could be conducted to determine what compounds of pollution are causing these negative effects, what organs are affected and how. Then scientists can try to find ways to eliminate these chemicals from the environment. Air Quality Index (AQI) gives a general measurement of how much pollution there is. AQI is determined by many components of pollution put together. To represent different severities, AQI is often referred to as green (0-50, good), yellow (51-100, moderate), and orange (101-150, unhealthy for sensitive groups). PM2.5 is a much more specific measurement a mixture of liquids and solids that are 2.5 micrometers in diameter measured in units of micrograms per cubic meter. My hypothesis is that higher AQI and PM2.5 levels will increase mortality rates in these organisms. To test this theory, I will be taking samples of various air qualities using an air pump with a piece of a dust mask attached to the end of it. I will then place an average of these samples into the environments of the organisms. After doing this, I found that the microorganisms were affected by pollution. The worse the pollution, the more mortality rates increased. PM2.5 seemed to have more of an affect than overall AQI level. From this study, I concluded that pollution does have a negative effect on daphnia magna and brine shrimp.


Risk Of White Nose Syndrome In Great Basin Caves

EARTH & ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

We examined the risk of a fungus that is deadly to bats called Pseudogymnoascus destructans in a sample of caves in the Great Basin area. We took temperature and humidity readings at various points inside the cave in order to compare that to caves in the Eastern U.S. caves who's bats are infected with the fugus.


A Holocene Record Of Deposition Of An Oxbow Lake In Rio Mesa, Utah

EARTH & ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

Studying past fluvial and geomorphic processes of the Dolores River, of which flows into the Colorado River and supports thousands of people every year. Data helps land managers and nearby land owners understand the surrounding environment.


Minimizing The Spread Of Invasive Species Using Improved Watercraft Monitoring Technology

EARTH & ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

Eurasian mussels (Quagga and Zebra mussels) are highly problematic invasive species. They were accidentally introduced to the U.S. in the mid 1900's. Their numbers have grown dramatically since and are still on the rise. They are great competitors and are capable of out-competing the native mussel species. This is an issue because the native mussels support the entire ecosystem. Eurasian mussels can survive in deeper water and on both, soft and hard sediment increasing their niche. They have no natural predators and reproduce at a rapid rate. Mussels filter the water of pollutants and phytoplankton, the building blocks of ecosystems. Every organism in these aquatic ecosystems depends on the abundance of phytoplankton. If the plankton are eliminated from the ecosystem, other organisms within the ecosystem will suffer. The mussels also filter and clear the water of toxins which may seem like a benefit, however when the water becomes clear the extra sunlight promotes the growth of aquatic plants such as, blue algae, and water milfoil. The increased growth of these aquatic plants depreciates the oxygen content in the water negatively impacting fish and other oxygen dependent populations.
With no natural predators, it is up to people to control mussel populations. The Great Lakes area has been hopelessly invaded. Many eradication techniques have been attempted. Chlorine has been used in an attempt to eradicate the mussels but it has negative impacts on the environment as well. The west has not seen as many invasions because it is not connected to the east side of the country through watersheds (a common way for mussels to spread). The invasions that the west side of the country is experiencing have been traced to contaminations by boaters, which is preventable. Currently the Utah Division of Natural Resources (DNR) has systems in place to prevent the spread of mussels by watercraft. However, these methods could prove to be inadequate and are not fully coordinated with systems of neighboring states like Wyoming Game and Fish or Idaho Fish and Game or Colorado's DNR. Bodies of water continue to become contaminated despite the DNR's efforts to track and manage boats requiring decontamination. According to the Division of Wildlife Resources (DWR) aquatic invasive species task force, Dreissenid mussels (which include Quagga and Zebra) are their number one priority. Legislation has been passed to prevent the spread of these mussels. It is written in the law that a certificate provided by the DNR personnel must be signed by the owner of the watercraft before launching. This certificate can be acquired and signed without evidence of a clean watercraft. The system of prevention is based solely on the "honors system" which is only effective if people are educated and want to protect the ecosystem. Uneducated boaters or those who are inconvenienced by the certificate system, are likely to be uncooperative and my put the ecosystem at risk.
I propose that the DNR use a more credible system such as a data base. A data base would be ideal for this system because large amounts of information can be stored. In order for individual boater information to be stored, a unique identifier for each individual needs to be established. A chain of information can then follow each of the individuals. Parts of this information can be written in a query system which allows more data to be added remotely.
If we were to establish a data base like this, we would be able to confidently protect our aquatic ecosystems.


Carbon Dioxide Levels From Different Aged Cars: Testing The Ppm Carbon Dioxide Levels From Different Cars Of The Same Make And Model Using The State Emissions Test

EARTH & ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

The purpose of this project was to learn more about global climate change, which is a very important to humanity. It is common knowledge that the older the car it will release more carbon dioxide than a younger car. I questioned whether the level of carbon dioxide increases with the age of cars that have a consistent increase of one year. If the age of a car’s engine affects the amount of pollution it releases, and if the carbon dioxide levels by PPM from five cars that are different ages but the same make and model are tested, then the data will show that the older the car, the more carbon dioxide it releases.
The experiment was tested at a car dealership. An auto zero with each car was performed which resets the data. First tested was the RPM of the engine, this was performed using a handheld tachometer. To test the carbon dioxide a probe is hooked into the tailpipe of the car being tested. The probe collects all the gasses released and sputed the data.
The data collected was from five cars, it showed inconsistent and that there is no steady increase between the cars of similar ages, which disproved the hypothesis. I feel if there was a more variety in age the data would be different. In conclusion this project provided me with a new understanding of how the levels of carbon dioxide varies with the age of cars, and that it might not be how I expected.


The Freeway Effect

EARTH & ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

In the Salt Lake Valley, our unique geography leads to dangerous air quality levels especially during winter months. Children are at an even higher risk for respiratory issues than other age groups. In Salt Lake City (SLC), we need solutions that will reduce particulate matter and our exposure to air pollution. We decided to investigate if/how the amount of particulate matter near SLC schools is affected by exposure to freeways throughout seasons. To test this we invented our own particulate matter collectors that we left at a location for a week to collect particulate matter on clear tape. We then used a light sensor to find the amount of particulate matter collected at a site. We also invented a method to measure exposure to freeway, that accounted for multiple freeways. Finally, we compared the amount of particulate matter collected to the exposure of the site to freeway. Our results showed that the higher the exposure to the freeway the higher the particulate matter. Yet unexpectedly in the summer more particulate matter was collected compared to the winter. This project could help Salt Lake City make educated decisions in city planning that will protect the health of young children.


Is There A Relationship Between Air Pollution And The Reflectivity Of Snow?

EARTH & ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

For my science fair project, I wanted to test if there was a relationship between air pollution and the reflectivity of snow. I believed that there was a relationship between air quality and the reflectivity of snow because of a property called albedo. Albedo is solar energy reflected from Earth back into space. Snow has a high albedo, which means the sunlight hitting the snow is reflected back into space. So, I believe that air pollution is reducing the albedo of snow in the Salt Lake Valley, which lowers the reflectivity of snow.
For my procedure, I put four wooden stakes into the ground to make a 3 feet by 3 feet square. I went outside when there was snow on the ground and put a reflectivity probe three inches away from the snow. I then put the artificial light source three inches away from the reflectivity probe. I shined the artificial light source on the snow, and tested the reflectivity of the snow and recorded the date, reflectivity, and air pollution of that day. I repeated this step for two months, and tested everyday.
My data showed that when air pollution increased, snow reflectivity decreased; and when air pollution decreased, reflectivity increased. My hypothesis was air pollution does affect the reflectivity of snow. So, I proved my hypothesis correct because the data I collected showed that when air pollution was high, snow reflectivity was low, which means snow it retaining more heat.


Plastic Biodegradation By Mealworms And Waxworms

EARTH & ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

Disturbed by the excess of plastic waste in our oceans, we were curious to find out how much, and what types of plastic could be biodegraded by mealworms and waxworms. We hypothesized that styrofoam would be most biodegradable because of it's soft texture. Through our research we discovered that over a four week period of time, mealworms ate more plastic over all, but styrofoam was eaten most by both worms.


Is Polystyrene Biodegradable By The Bacteria In A Mealworm's Gut

EARTH & ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

Plastic is a big problem in our world, but mealworms may be the solution to all of the pollution plastic causes. Therefore, I decided to confirm the testing that was done by the People's Republic of China. I asked if polystyrene (which is a type of styrofoam) was biodegradable by the bacteria in a mealworm’s gut. I hypothesized that the mealworm's gut bacteria would break down the polystyrene and the mealworm’s would thrive. In order to prove this although, I went through a series of steps to achieve my data.
First I set up the habitat for mealworms with their original diet of bran and oatmeal. This habitat would be a control to compare the behaviors of the mealworms in their regular habitat versus the mealworms with the packing peanuts. I placed 0.3 grams of packing peanuts into a bottle and placed a CO2 sensor into the top and recorded data for 24 hours. Then, after about a week I measured the mass of the styrofoam. The next step in testing was to do the same, but with styrofoam blocks with a mass of 1.4 grams instead of packing peanuts with a mass of 0.3 grams.
While analyzing my data I found that in both tests, the mealworms were definitely eating the styrofoam because as the CO2 level started to plateau it suddenly started to rapidly increased, proving that because there was more CO2 in the bottle, the mealworms were consuming the polystyrene and producing carbon dioxide. However, in the styrofoam block test, unlike the packing peanut test, there was no change in mass. In the packing peanut test there was a significant mass loss which was an indication that mealworms were able to degrade polystyrene successfully.


Pollution Trap

EARTH & ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

My question is what parts of the Salt Lake area are the most polluted and what creates most of the pollution. I chose this question because of a news report I saw about pollution I wanted to know what parts of our neighborhood were the most polluted and I decided that I would do my project on this. My project is helpful because it shows that driving really does add pollution, it also shows that living by/ near big busy roads adds to the air pollution. For my project I made little contraptions called pollution catchers with a paper plate, Vaseline, and string. I then hung them up in areas around Salt Lake and waited until two weeks were up. I then extracted the pollution cathers from the various areas and counted as best as possible the pollution specks that the pollution trap had caught. After that I did research on how and why pollution is made and found that the use of fossil fuels were a very large cause of pollution. I also read that the valley traps pollution so when you live in Salt Lake The air is overall more polluted than other places. I saw that the higher up in the valley you were the easier it was for pollution to escape. So when you are in the lower parts of the valley with high traffic roads the fossil fuel use and the valley trap made it hard for pollution particles to escape. This is why my results showed that between Midvale, downtown Salt Lake,and Eastern, and western Taylorsville Western Taylorsville had the most pollution on the catcher. This proved my hypothesis Wong, well at least part of it. My hypothesis was that Downtown Salt Lake was the most polluted and that the cause of most pollution is the use of cars and gas. Western Taylorsville is the most polluted area in Salt Lake, but I was right about fossil fuels being the main pollutant of the area. Overall I concluded that because of the position of Western Taylorsville near roads and deep in the valley it was the most polluted of the four areas and Midvale was the least polluted. I also concluded that the cause of most pollution is the use of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and gas.


The Problem Of Particulates Produced By Fuels Used In Small Engines

EARTH & ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

The purpose of this project was to determine if gasoline mixed with 10% ethanol (E10) provides the best power output when used in gas-powered lawn and garden equipment (GLGE), while producing the least amount of emissions. To make this project possible, it was necessary to access different fuel types having more consistent chemical properties than normally available at a gas station. The fuels used required careful formulation and testing to ensure little or no variation in their makeup. It was also necessary to use an engine typically used in a lawnmower or similar gas-powered lawn and garden equipment (GLGE). Finally, the testing equipment needed be capable of measuring the amount of power produced as well as the amount of each of the gasses and hydrocarbons present in the exhaust of the engine. MTD Products generously allowed this project to be done in their lab facility and provided access to the test engine, dynamometer, certified fuels and the necessary emissions test equipment. Two of MTD’s engineers supervised the experiment and allowed access to the collected data for scientific purposes. The procedures adhered to the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) protocols for safety and environmental protection. The EPA verified each machine and process used for the experiment in order to ensure valid, unbiased data.
After mounting the test engine to the dynamometer (dyno), fuel flow sensors, intake and exhaust temperature sensors, and CVS bench were connected to the engine. The engine was then broken in (ran long enough for rings, gaskets, and valves to seat) and test equipment calibrated. Tests were conducted using the A-B-A method, running Phase 2 fuel as the control fuel (A) and alternating it between each E10 (B), Isobutanol 15 %(B) and E15 (B) test, in order to ensure data consistency. The MTD lab setting was professional and all methods and procedures were adhered to with strict observance. The data collected was based on the information recorded by the lab equipment. E10 fuel and 15% Isobutanol have very similar Air Fuel Ratio (AFR) properties running in this 5X65MU engine. Although the total emissions are very similar, the main concern with running gasoline with 15% ethanol (E15) fuel would be the run quality with a lean mixture and the large AFR swing that would need to be addressed. E15 may be much more problematic if the base engine was calibrated at a lean state with E0-E10 fuels. As the mixtures lean out with E15 the engine run quality could be severely diminished which would also have a large impact on emissions. As E15 becomes more readily available, the risk of consumers putting the wrong formulation of fuel in their GLGE increases, consequently increasing the risk of producing harmful emissions. In order for the mandate from the EPA to be something other than counterproductive, engine design will need to be modified so that the engine will still perform at optimum efficiency no matter what fuel the consumer uses.


Effect Of Mountain Biking On Biodiversity

EARTH & ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

I measured the plant biodiversity of the side a mountain bike trail and compared it to the plant biodiversity next to a hiking trail.


Rip, Poke, And Tear: Household Chemicals Vs. Plastic Bags

EARTH & ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

My project is about which household chemicals degrade polyethylene plastic the most over a short period of time. I did this experiment because I really enjoy being outside but hate seeing pollution everywhere. I wanted to see if bases and acids broke down polyethylene plastic. I hypothesized that the bases would do the best in a short period of time, and the heat over a longer period of time. Turns out that the bases (bleach, salt water) did the best in breaking down the plastic in five weeks time. (Not including the heated samples).


Pollution Sollution

EARTH & ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

    Pollution has become a serious problem in the Salt Lake valley. During the winter, something known as an inversion happens, where the warm air rises up, and the cold air is in the valley, causing the pollution to fill the valley.  One of our sources said that Beijing is one of the most polluted cities in the world.  At times, the Salt Lake valley can have the worst air quality in our nation. Sources also said that environmentally made negative ions can help clean the air. Based on this knowledge, experiments were conducted for the project to see if negative ions can actually clean the air.  Car exhaust and candle smoke were used to determine if the negative ionizer could actually clean pollution out of a fish tank.  The conclusion of this experiment was that a negative ionizer can clean small portions of pollution out of the air.  This experiment could be improved by gathering more pollution like substances, a larger test area, and a more suitable way to place the pollution into the fish tanks. While pollution is a major problem in the world, small steps have been taken, but none that are able to make an impact. Pollution is only able to rise into the atmosphere, and sit there. With this device, pollution will be able to be cleaned.


Smart Growth

EARTH & ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

My project was what is the most important element in a aquaponics system? In case you don't know what aquaponics is it is a system of aquaculture in which the waste produced by farmed fish or other aquatic animals supplies nutrients for plants grown hydroponically, which in turn purify the water. At first I was going to test wether the fish or plants were the most important. It ended up being that neither of those were the most important but the water is. Because it is what both the plants and fish need to live of course but it also transfers the pH and nitrogen to the fish and the vitamins to the fish to the point you don't have to feed them anymore. For my experiment I made a aquaponics system the fish I used were goldfish because it is one of the fish that puts off the most waste and that is where the nitrogen comes from. The plant I used was herb thyme because it is one of the plants that grow best in a aquaponics system.


Which Of Salt Lake City's Seven Watersheds Produces The Cleanest Water In Non Purified Form?

EARTH & ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

For my science project I decided to test Salt Lake City’s seven watersheds to find out which is cleanest in non-purified form. This would allow me to try and see what is the biggest cause of the deteriorating water quality. The seven watersheds of Salt Lake City include: Emigration, Red Butte, City Creek, Parleys, Millcreek, Big Cottonwood, and Little Cottonwood. I also tested each watershed when it merged with the Jordan River to see if it would be more contaminated after traveling across the city.
At each watershed I tested for the presence of coliform, the turbidity, pH, phosphate, nitrate, BOD (biochemical oxygen demand), and dissolved oxygen. I found that Little Cottonwood and Emigration had the cleanest water in unpurified form. I also found that Parleys had the most unclean water in unpurified form of the watersheds at the mouth of their canyons. When the watersheds were merging with the Jordan they were more contaminated than at the mouth of their canyon.
My primary hypothesis was not supported my my data. I hypothesized that Red Butte Watershed would be the cleanest in unpurified form because there isn’t very much recreational activity by it, but this was not supported. However, my secondary hypothesis was supported by my data. It said that the watersheds would be more contaminated as they were merging with the Jordan River. This led me to believe that exposure to residential and industrial areas is the biggest factor of contaminating watersheds.


Every Apple Has A Voice

EARTH & ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

Although there are already methods to collecting data on water isotopes such methods require large and costly equipment. During this experiment the equipment includes a custom made apparatus developed by the research mentor Erik Oerter, PhD, University of Utah. Oerter’s apparatus called the IsoWagon is comparatively smaller, mobile, and more cost effective than current methods. It includes disposable probes connected to a series of tubes that feed into a chamber. Within this chamber water collected from the probes is sent through a series of lasers which measure the velocity of the water. The information collected is then sent to a software program to analyse the amounts of each isotope present then maps them. By using the data collected humans can further monitor their effects on the global water cycle aiding in water conservation.


Toxic Algae

EARTH & ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

In the summer of 2016, Salt Lake area lakes and rivers were infested by a toxic variety of blue-green algae. Research has shown that these cyanobacteria produce cyanotoxins that have considerable effects on wildlife and livestock. The effects on plants is unclear, but there is concern that it also affects plants, which may, in turn, have negative consequences on the food chain. This study investigated the effects of a particular type of blue-green algae, Anabaena on plant growth. It was hypothesized that if medium tainted with Anabaena is given to plants, then there will be a negative impact on the plant growth. Three varieties of plants were selected (radish, basil, and cucumber) to be used to evaluate the effects of Anabaena-tainted water. Plants were grown using this tainted water and compared to control plants grown with freshwater medium, water, and Oedogonium-tainted water (green algae). The plants’ growth was analyzed by measuring germination rate, germination time, stem length, and number of leaves. Over the growth period, the results were inconclusive regarding the effects of Anabaena on plant growth. There was some interesting and notable differences in plant growth, however, it was not consistent enough to conclude that Anabaena created this effect. The experiment has many variables that could account for the inconclusive results. No testing was performed to assure that the Anabaena-tainted water contained significant amounts of harmful cyanotoxins. The sample size, short time period, and plant variation made this experiment difficult to collect and analyze data. Further research with the blue-green algae toxins may show a more conclusive effect on plant life.


Fact Or Hoax? Flaming Fruit

ENERGY: CHEMICAL & PHYSICAL

While searching online, we found a video with almost twenty million shares and likes , that shows how to start a fire with a lemon, and a few other simple supplies. We began to research this experiment, and found many sources, including Mental Floss, a reliable website that supplies people with things to do, and innovative ideas, that said this was real, and could be done, but we also found quite a few sources that said it was fake. While looking at these resources we came to the conclusion that we had to try this experiment. To begin,we tried the lemon, then we decided to try other fruit to see if any would be able to start a fire. None of the fruits were able to start a fire. Curiously, the apple produced the most electricity at 537 millivolts. This is about 0.5 volts, not nearly enough to start a fire. Electricity in fruit is generated by transferring electrons in a chain from one point to another to produce a current. If the apple had more electrons, than it could explain why the apple produced the most electricity. The video that so many people believe is true, turned out to be a hoax. We will contact Mental Floss to let them know so that they can take it off their website or add a disclaimer that it is impossible to start a fire with just a lemon and some pieces of metal and wire.


How To Make A Penny Battery

ENERGY: CHEMICAL & PHYSICAL

•Problem Statement: What is the effect of the amount of pennies, aluminum foil, and cardboard circles on the amount of voltage this battery can create?

•For my experiment, I made a penny battery by using pennies, aluminum foil, vinegar, and cardboard circles.

•My hypothesis was correct because the more rows of pennies and cardboard I added, The more voltage I got.

•Problem Statement: What is the effect of the amount of pennies, aluminum foil, and cardboard circles on the amount of voltage this battery can create?
`•For my experiment, I made a penny battery by using pennies, aluminum foil, vinegar, and cardboard circles
•My hypothesis was correct because the more rows of pennies and cardboard I added, The more voltage I got.


The Effect Of Object Weight And Liquid Density On The Buoyant Force An Object Experiences

ENERGY: CHEMICAL & PHYSICAL

When an object is immersed into a liquid, it experiences two forces simultaneously, buoyant force, and gravity force. But what affects these two forces that makes them more powerful or less powerful? This experiment's goal is to explore how object weights, and liquid densities affect the buoyant force an object experiences.


Thermal Conductivity With Heat Pipes

ENERGY: CHEMICAL & PHYSICAL

Everyday many people have overheating phones, slowly heated cooktops, and inefficient heating/cooling practices. All this can be improved with an everyday used tool, the heat pipes. Heat pipes are already used in electronics, but more places could use these great tools, such as the cooking industry. With fossil fuel consumption through the roof, as stated by the IER, America has 81% of its energy acquired from fossil fuels. Of this percentage 29.8    % of this non renewable resource is used on heating, oil and diesel fuels. We can cut this down with the more efficient use of heatpipes. The goal of this experiment was to see what fluid would most improve a heat pipes conductivity, and acetone was hypothesised to work the best. I either got hot water (heated by a microwave), or hot cold water (cooled by ice) and placed the heat pipe in the cup with the water. I then measured one end of the pipe with a thermocouple, and recorded the results every thirty seconds. With the last test, I put all the heat pipes in the freezer, and in one minute started recording the results every thirty seconds. My results supported my hypothesis that acetone would be make the heat pipe the most efficient at transferring thermal energy. As expected all the liquids did help the pipes transfer heat better, but surprisingly Tide detergent worked third best at doing this. It could be possible that this occurred due to the few ingredients (that have really low boiling points) effects outweighing the chemicals (with higher evaporation points) effects on the detergent conducting properties in the heat pipes.


Puzzle Panels

ENERGY: CHEMICAL & PHYSICAL

The problem I hope to solve is the portability of solar panels and the reliance on diesel/gasoline generators after emergencies. The goal for this project is to create portable solar panels that can be set up very quickly and produce about 10 watts at 4 volts. My project is inspired by a jigsaw puzzle. My hexagonal panels can be put together easily like the pieces of a jigsaw puzzle. I 3d printed the bases and laid all the cells on 7 panels. I then tested in the sunlight. Using different resistances, I optimized the total power the panels produced. This came in at 7.39 Watts at 3.12 volts with 1 ohm of resistance. This was a proof of concept, and lead into redesign. I added plexiglass, reprinted the frames to be stackable, and used thicker wire to add less resistance. The redesign (with only) two panels, was able to 3.38 watts at 2.82 volts, compared to two of the original panels which only produced 2.84 watts at 2.59 volts. Once I have finished constructing all seven of the panels I will hopefully be able to achieve my power goal. Next year, I would like to make larger solar panels to power something larger, like a medical tent or some vital electrical system.


Effects Of Temperature On Solar Panels

ENERGY: CHEMICAL & PHYSICAL

We wanted to figure out how solar panels work in different air temperatures. We know that solar panels work best on a sunny (little cloud cover) day. At certain angles, solar energy output is increased. If the angle and amount of sun matter, doesn't air temperature? We wanted to see if the air temperature really effected the energy output of a small solar panel.


Factors That Affect The Production Of Hydrogen In A Reversible Pem Fuel Cell

ENERGY: CHEMICAL & PHYSICAL

Hydrogen is an alternative fuel that has the potential to revolutionize the transportation industry. When produced by solar power, hydrogen is a renewable fuel. This project investigates how temperature, time of day,and weather affect the production of hydrogen in an electrolysis system using solar power and compares the results to those obtained using a battery power source.


Waste Embraced 2.0: A Novel Study Of The Effects Of Optimized Struvite Precipitation On Biogas Production And Resource Recovery From Municipal Landfill Leachate And Wastewater Centrate

ENERGY: CHEMICAL & PHYSICAL

Biofuels present an important alternative to our renewable energy sources. Methane, a highly common biogas, is generated as a result of synergistic efforts among many prokaryotes in which case these prokaryotes chew upon the organic waste and convert this waste to methane gas through several intermediate processes. Methane is used to produce electricity, heat homes, and power vehicles. In response to fossil fuel depletion, my research last year was based on optimizing methane gas production from biomass and food waste from urban restaurants using a novel eco-genomic framework. I have continued my research this year by using landfill leachate and wastewater centrate, two highly prevalent forms of municipal waste around the world, to increase methane gas production and recover nutrients using an innovative framework. Landfill leachate is a dangerous, yet valuable waste product that forms from rainwater percolation in landfills around the world. Without proper application and usage, leachate can contaminate groundwater and surface water, posing a health risk towards plants, animals and humans. It can also cause harmful gas production, polluting our environment. However, in many countries and states, including Utah, leachate is proving to be a viable source of methane gas production to generate fuel. Leachate precipitation allows for valuable resource recovery, such as that of ammonia, phosphorus, heavy metals, and struvite, a highly effective phosphorus-based fertilizer. In my research, I will use chemical precipitation to recover ammonia, phosphorus and heavy metals. I will also use ICPMS and reactor engineering to discover the optimal method for leachate/centrate precipitation and use this to compare methane gas production from an anaerobic digester fed raw leachate/centrate to an anaerobic digester fed precipitated leachate/centrate. This experimentation is novel and has considerable benefits, including a world-wide application. The results will allow leachate to be used in a more productive and profitable manner, increasing methane gas production whilst more efficiently recovering valuable nutrients. To accomplish this multi-stage project, I will collect landfill leachate and wastewater centrate from municipal wastewater treatment plants and landfills as well as run a lab-scale bioreactor in an Environmental Engineering and Microbiology lab at the University of Utah.


Catalytic Converters

ENERGY: CHEMICAL & PHYSICAL

There is a limitation in the Catalytic Converters design that is its capability to warm up quick enough to do its job correctly. Before it’s hot, emissions pass through the Catalytic converter unchanged and harm the environment around us. 350 F is the temperature that the catalytic converter must be at to work. 500 F is the temperature the catalytic converter must be at to work 100%. The time it takes a car to warm up to 350 F while idling is 36:40.67 minutes, less while driving. Can a catalytic converter be improved so that the catalytic converter is at 350 F before the car is leaving the driveway? To answer that I plan to add an electrically heated coil to the catalytic converter so that the catalyst takes less time to heat up. A box is being welded so that the coils can be supported and in the right position. I plan to record the effectiveness and how much power is used to power the coil. The time will also be recorded and will be compared to a catalytic converter that is not preheated.


Saving Energy With Thermal Cooking

ENERGY: CHEMICAL & PHYSICAL

Maren Gibson abstract

The purpose of this project is to determine how much energy a thermal cooker can save compared to a gas fire stove. This was done by testing three different cooking devices to see if using thermal insulation is as effective as using a gas fire stove, then measuring how much time and fuel/energy each one used. Three meals were cooked in each of the different devices; a store-bought thermal cooker, a homemade thermal cooker, and a gas fire stove. The time of how long each cooking device was on the stove (while the stove was turned on high-medium heat) was measured when cooking each meal, then was recorded in a table. Some of the pots that were used in this process weren’t the same size, which may have caused some cooking devices to take up more time and energy while on the stove than others. Although that happened, the results were consistent throughout the whole experiment, showing that both of the thermal cookers used less energy than the stove. It was concluded that both the thermal cookers saved the most energy compared to the gas fire stove. The thermal cookers also cooked the meals in a much more efficient way, but took more time to cook (including the time it took on the stove), compared to the gas fire stove.


Thermal Impedance

ENERGY: CHEMICAL & PHYSICAL

Explore the effectiveness of standard insulation types and methods available to every home owner, for their homes. For the sake of keeping it simple I only concerned myself with the insulation portion of a home’s envelope. In testing the samples, it was necessary to create an isolation chamber where we could control and modify a sample of air, push it through the samples, and test the samples ability in controlling the heat that the chamber generated.


How Are Magnets Affected By Heat?

ENERGY: CHEMICAL & PHYSICAL

We tested how the heat of a magnet affected how many paper clips it could pick up.


Psii In Electrolysis

ENERGY: CHEMICAL & PHYSICAL

The burning of hydrocarbon based fuels is affecting the earth’s climate. One alternative is Hydrogen but it has many problems. One of them is efficiency of production by electrolysis. In this experiment, it was determined whether matcha (a type of green tea) or basil (generic plant material) can act as a catalyst in this reaction. This has been done by performing electrolysis in a Hofmann apparatus with the solution being manipulated: Both were 1M NaCl solutions but the test solution had 1.0g of matcha added per 250mL . The volume in the chambers, room temperature, air pressure that day, and power dissipated in the Hofmann apparatus have been collected and used to determine the efficiency. Problems have occurred and were investigated. An insignificant increase in efficiency was found and the cause was determined to not be the manipulated variable. Stoichiometrically expected values were not obtained for the gas chambers. The pH of the control solution but not the matcha solution rose from 5 to 12 during the 4000s segmented test. To explain this, 0.1M NaOH was added in small quantities to 50mL of both the control and test solution and it was found that the test solution did possess buffering properties. Electrolysis tests have been repeated with an sodium sulfate as the electrolyte, basil as a live PSII source, 500s tests, 1g basil per 100mL, and a formal power supply with tests done at 9V, 6V, and 3V (only the 9V tests were completed). The effect on efficiency was still insignificant.


Using Compressed Air As Energy Storage

ENERGY: CHEMICAL & PHYSICAL

Large-scale energy storage is still an unsolved problem, but using compressed air is one possible solution. To use compressed air for this purpose it is important to know if the energy stored in a compressed-air vessel grows linearly with the air pressure. If it does not, that is, if significant energy is lost when stored in compressed air, it would not be a good storage medium for energy. We designed an experiment to test if the energy stored in compressed air increases linearly with the pressure of the gas. The experiment is to convert the potential energy of the compressed gas to kinetic energy used to propel an object. By measuring the kinetic energy of the object at various gas pressures, we determined that the compressed gas stores energy linearly.


Wave Your Clean Energy Worries Away

ENERGY: CHEMICAL & PHYSICAL

I tested to see if adding copper coils to the wave energy converter would improve it's design and make it more efficient. I made a mini wave converter and tested out my hypothesis which turned out true. My project was a success.


Spinning Energy Ii Geared Up!

ENERGY: CHEMICAL & PHYSICAL

The project is a model that was created to generate energy from 3 magnets, 3 coils, gears and bearings. It is based on last years Spinning Energy, but with a 4.5:1 gear ratio has been added along with other elements.


One Man's Trash Is Another Man's Treasure

ENERGY: CHEMICAL & PHYSICAL

Taking bio Fuel, such as bananas, corn, leaves and mixing it with cow manure to make biogas.


From Trash To Gas: Biomass Energy

ENERGY: CHEMICAL & PHYSICAL

The project tested 15 different 1-liter soda bottles each containing distinct forms of biomass. The bottles where then observed throughout a period of 12 days to determine which form of biomass produced the greatest amount of biogas.


Powered By Waste

ENERGY: CHEMICAL & PHYSICAL

The purpose of my project is to gain and understanding of microbial fuel cells as a clean, renewable energy source. I will learn about electrogenic microbes and how a microbial fuel cell harnesses the microbe’s production of electrical power.
My hypothesis was that I will build a functioning microbial fuel cell that will produce measurable voltage. The voltage levels will be higher in clay versus top soil. The voltage will increase after the urine (nutrient) is added.
I built microbial fuel cells and measured the voltage outputs. I built the fuel cells with water-tight containers. I used clay soil in one fuel cell and top soil in a second fuel cell as sources of electrogenic microbes in the fuel cells. I used graphite disks as anode and cathodes and titanium wires to connect the anode and cathode to a blinker hacker board. When the light began blinking I knew power was produced and began measuring voltage with a voltmeter on a daily basis.
After two days there was no measurable voltage in the fuel cell with clay soil. I repeated this process and got the same result. I built a third microbial fuel cell using top soil and within a day measurable voltage was produced. I measured the voltage daily. When it became unmeasurable, I added urine and it produced measurable voltage again. The output has remained steady for over 15 days.
I built a functioning microbial fuel cell with top soil. It produced measurable voltage that increased after adding nutrients for the electrogenic microbes. The fuel cells I built with clay soil did not produce measurable voltage.
The microbe population in the clay soil must have been too small, or non-existent.
I have a strong understanding of microbial fuel cells, including their structure and how the cells harness the power produced by electrogenic microbes.


Solar Ovens Hot Or Not

ENERGY: CHEMICAL & PHYSICAL

The purpose of this experiment was to find out which oven would produce more heat and cook faster if a black solar oven and a white solar oven were used. The hypothesis stated that if two solar ovens were used, one white and one black, then the black oven would get hotter and cook faster because dark colors absorb more light and heat than lighter colors. The black solar oven and the white solar oven were placed on a table outside, angled towards the sun. The ovens' temperatures were then checked every half hour for the next four hours. In both experiments, the black oven created more heat and was warmer than the white oven after every 30-minute observation. In conclusion, we learned that our hypothesis was correct and that black surfaces (ovens) will get hotter that white surfaces (ovens).


Heat Sinks

ENERGY: CHEMICAL & PHYSICAL

Heat sinks play a crucial role in modern day technology. They prevent electronics such as computers from overheating. The heat that forms in the chip of the computer would overheat the computer without heat sinks. Heat sinks direct the heat out of the computer. My experiment was formed around convection and conduction which are a very important part of heat sinks. My question was, " If I place a spoon in a hot drink will it cool faster?"


Biodiesel Vs. Diesel

ENERGY: CHEMICAL & PHYSICAL

Diesel fuel is one of the most polluting fuels to the environment. Its emissions contain carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), air toxins, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, and particulates. These harmful emissions can cause lung cancer, eye and nose irritation, headaches, respiratory disease, etc. while also contributing to environmental issues, such as: global warming and the destruction of the ozone layer. The objective of this experiment is to test the emissions of different biodiesel fuels to petro-diesel fuel. The biodiesel fuels tested were vegetable oil biodiesel, bacon grease biodiesel, olive oil biodiesel, and algae oil biodiesel. It was hypothesized that the biodiesel fuels would have fewer harmful emissions than petro-diesel fuel because oils are cleaner than petroleum. Emissions were tested using an emissions analyzer by burning the fuels in an oil lamp; this particular machine measured CO, CO2, and hydrocarbons. The results showed that biodiesel fuels had significantly less emissions than petro-diesel fuel. Further, algae oil biodiesel had the fewest harmful emissions compared to the other biodiesel fuels tested. The initial research proposed that biodiesel fuels of any type would burn cleaner than petro-diesel fuel. Blends of biodiesel and petro-diesel fuel would also produce less harmful emissions but would have more emissions than burning a pure biodiesel fuel.


Semiconductor Capacitors And Its Application In Battery Technology

ENERGY: CHEMICAL & PHYSICAL

Currently, electrochemical energy storage devices rely on being connected in series or parallel to achieve large energy storage and power output, and cannot withstand high voltage; hence there is a need to improve the specific power and specific energy simultaneously. The novel capacitor that achieves such improvements has a multilayer plate structure, with n N-type semiconductor, a dielectric body, and a P-type semiconductor. This novel capacitor is resistant to high voltage, and has a variable capacitance dependent on the charging voltage(U). The battery can possess a high specific energy (E) of more than 100wh/kg and a specific power of more than 100kw/kg, and E might be a third power function of U. Proven by designed experiments and calculations, these characteristics mean that this semiconductor capacitor is an efficient battery that has the potential to partly replace the lithium-ion battery in electric energy storage devices.


Don't Slow The Flow

ENERGY: CHEMICAL & PHYSICAL

I wanted to determine which type of battery would perform the best in cold temperatures. The four types of batteries that I tested were nickel-metal hydride, lithium, zinc-carbon, and alkaline. In order to create extremely cold environments, I used my freezer (0° Fahrenheit), an ice mixture consisting of ice, water, and rock salt (-5.8° Fahrenheit), and dry ice (-109.3° Fahrenheit).

I hypothesized that lithium batteries would be the least resistant to cold temperatures. My reasoning for this is when I bring my cell phone to the ski resorts, the lithium-ion’s battery level significantly drops. To test my hypothesis, I wired a fan and an analog clock to a battery holder, and then I stored it in the cold environment until the fan and clock stopped running. With the exception of lithium batteries, I learned that when the battery stopped powering the fan and the clock, the battery wasn’t completely out of energy. Instead, the battery’s current was slowed by the cold temperature which caused the battery to stop producing energy to power the clock and fan. I learned that the batteries I tested have better uses for some devices over others. For example, lithium batteries are good for smoke detectors, and alkaline batteries are good for low-drain devices, such as clocks. Through my research, I learned which battery is most resistant and reliable in cold weather. The most resistant battery was lithium, then nickel-metal hydride, then alkaline, and the least resistant battery was zinc-carbon. In conclusion, I proved my hypothesis incorrect and found that zinc-carbon batteries performed the worst in cold conditions. So the next time you choose a battery to use in cold conditions, don’t let the weather “slow the flow” of your battery.


Can Co2 Be Scrubbed From The Atmosphere?

ENGINEERING: CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL

The goals of this project are to determine if soda lime will scrub CO2 from the air, if the flow rate of air will affect the removal of CO2, and how much soda lime is required to remove the CO2 emitted by a single car in one year. My hypotheses were that 1) soda lime can be used as a scrubber to remove CO2 from the atmosphere, and 2) increasing the flow rate will remove CO2 faster but not affect the total amount of CO2 collected by the scrubber. My first hypothesis was confirmed, soda lime does remove CO2 from the atmosphere. While my first hypothesis was confirmed my second hypothesis was partially confirmed because increasing the flow rate does remove CO2 faster but in doing so it affects the efficiency of the scrubber thus decreasing the amount of CO2 collected by the scrubber. According to the average miles per gallon, miles driven per year, and emission rate, the average car emits 4,690 kg of CO2 every year. My experiments showed that a total of 134,000 kg of soda lime is required to remove the CO2 a single car emits in one year. While soda lime does remove CO2 from the air, the amount required to remove a significant portion of CO2 is just too high. Thus, soda lime is not a practical solution for the removal of CO2 from our atmosphere because of the amount required and the waste that is generated.


Comparing Bridge Structures

ENGINEERING: CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL

The main purpose of this project is to find out how much extra weight truss bridges can withstand and how well triangles distribute weight in a bridge. I chose this project because the structure of buildings is interesting to me. I like architecture and building bridges is an easy way to experiment with architecture. My question was: how does the structure of a bridge affect its strength. After testing three different bridge structures, beam, truss, and truss with cross beams, I discovered that truss bridges held close to three times the weight of beam bridges. The truss bridge with cross beams did not hold any extra weight than the truss bridge. The main thing I learned during this experiment was how triangles help make a structure stronger.


Passive Solar

ENGINEERING: CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL

My project was making a self sufficient house in heating and cooling itself specifically focusing on passive solar. This is important to use because each year we spend thousands of dollars on heating and cooling are house alone so if we made a passive solar house than we would have to pay of heating and cooling because the house would do it by itself. The main reason people would choose a passive solar house is because it raises the value of the house and it cut the utility bill. In order to make the passive solar model work had to put lots of installation in the model so i would trap the heat in and it wouldn’t be able to escape. The most important part of the model is the thermal mass because you have to make sure it can absorb as much of the sun as possible so it can radiate the heat. In my lab the best results I got is when I checked it right when the temperature dropped and the model had the heat from the sun trapped inside the worst results I got is when I checked it right when the temperature dropped. The passive solar model I made didn’t have a particular design I follow I looked at a bunch of models and saw was my model needs to have and made a own model so it could work for my model. For instance I had to put a lot more installation because I used cardboard as my walls. Because of this my model meet all my requirements maybe a little less than expected but meet the requirements.


The Carbon Sequestrator

ENGINEERING: CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL

The purpose of this product is to remove carbon from the atmosphere and consolidate it in a stable lithospheric state. In doing so, my product works to alleviate the climatic stresses interposed by anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide.
The processes my product will utilize have been designed around three basic criteria, and as a result require only water and sunlight to operate, release gaseous oxygen back into the atmosphere and do not create any waste or negative byproduct materials. These processes consist of an aerated sodium hydroxide solution, calcium hydroxide bath, and high temperature electrolysis process.
The sodium hydroxide and calcium carbonate baths absorb atmospheric carbon dioxide in order to create calcium carbonate, which is then separated respectively into calcium oxide, carbon and oxygen during the electrolysis process. This electrolysis process is carried out at 850 degrees Celsius.
Through SEM and EDX analyses I have verified qualitatively that my process can in fact remove carbon from the atmosphere. The next steps I am taking will verify this information with quantitative data. Upon quantitative verification of this fact I will begin automating the process, using the designs listed in my project journal.
Although research on carbon sequestration is underway, my research would suggest there are no currently operating products or technologies in use that return carbon to a solid state.


How To Detect And Neutralize Carbon Monoxide

ENGINEERING: CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL

How can Carbon Monoxide be detected and neutralized? Carbon Monoxide (CO) is gas formed from the incomplete burning of fuel. Exposure to CO can result in CO poisoning, and prolonged exposure can be fatal. CO is also difficult to detect, therefore it is often called the silent killer. Our goal was to create a device that could detect and neutralize CO in vehicles. We planned to make a small device that could be placed in the dashboard of a car and the device would bothe alert the driver that CO was in the car and neutralize the CO. We used Copper Chloride (CuCl) and Hydrochloric Acid (HCl) to neutralize the CO. A store bought electrochemical sensor CO detector was used to detect CO. The prototype consisted of the detector, and a separate absorption mechanism created by drilling holes in the lid of a container containing the CuCl and HCl. The prototype was the tested using two different methods. First the prototype was placed near the tailpipe of a running car. The second test consisted of two glass containers connected by a tube. I need one container gosling was being burned to produce CO and in the second container CuCl and HCl were placed. At the moment both tests are inconclusive. The CuCl and HCl were not able to be tested with CO due to the escapage or lack of CO. However, the prototype did meet all the requirements in e design goal. Further testing with CuCl and HCl is in progress.


Resource Recovery From Liquid Waste: A Strategy For Ensuring Food Security

ENGINEERING: CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL

The project focused on recovering phosphorus from types of wastewaters. the project aimed to promote urban sustainability for populations in the future and reduce human impact in the environment. These impacts include eutrophication, which results in marine life death. The phosphates were recovered in the form of struvite, and three different wastewater types were among the variables tested.


Haste To Remove Waste Which Factor Has The Most Influence On The Rate Of Organic Matter Decomposition?

ENGINEERING: CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL

Which factor has the most influence on the rate of organic matter decomposition? Research has stated that organic matter makes up about 2/3 of our planet’s waste and that the average American throws out at least 1000lbs. of organic matter a year. If we can keep organic materials out of landfills and speed up the decomposition of this matter it would have a positive impact on our environment. My experiment will test the following factors to conclude which variable speeds up decomposition the fastest: presence of fungi, aeration, temperature, moisture, soil pH, and earthworms.
I hypothesized that the factor that will have the most influence on the rate of the decomposition of organic matter would be earthworms. I believed that this container would have the best influence on organic matter because, based on extensive research I have learned that earthworms assist in the decomposition process because they are said to be able to break down plants, leaves, and other organic matter into small pieces in a process called fragmentation. This process creates more surface area to support the growth of bacteria and fungi, which in turn, break down additional matter and substances. Also, in a process called “mixing” the worms squirm around the soil and cause the organic matter to dry and decompose.
My procedure included filling seven containers with approximately nine pounds of backyard soil that was dug. I collected outside organic materials including leaves and grass clippings (approximately 3g of grass clippings and 12g of leaves) for each container and filled each one. Next, I shredded newspaper and added approximately 3g to each container. I then cut cardboard into 6 by ½ inches and added approximately 10g to each container. I prepared organic food items for each container: orange peels, apple cores, bananas, green beans, banana peels, and tomatoes. Finally I placed a whole apple in each container to assist with visual analysis of the decomposition process. After the containers were finished I tested them for a period of 63 days and measured and recorded weight, moisture levels, pH levels, temperature, and apple weight of each container.
In conclusion, my hypothesis was incorrect because I thought that earthworms would be the best factor that would decompose organic matter, when in fact it was not in the top 3 of the best decomposers. Earthworms kept the apple at a constant weight level and it also happened to keep the tomatoes and other organic matter in the containers fresh over a long period of time. The best factor that decomposed organic matter was the heat container. It made the apple weight drop considerably, it had the highest temperature out of all of the containers, and it had a very high moisture percentage throughout the entire experiment. In testing all of these factors I learned that a lower pH level could also accelerate the decomposition of organic matter. Another interesting observation was to see the fungi container decompose the smaller organic matter at a rapid pace, while the pH container was best at decomposing the entire apple. By testing the decomposition rate of certain factors on organic matter, I learned how decomposition works in our world today and how to speed up the rate of decomposition by using a heat source or maintaining a low pH level.


Erosion In Different Materials

ENGINEERING: CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL

I did my project on erosion.
I measured the speed of erosion in 3 different materials and decided what material would erode the slowest.


Idle Traffic Managment

ENGINEERING: CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL

Air pollution levels often reach dangerous levels in the Salt Lake Valley. Most of this pollution comes from vehicles. Idling plays a large part in this. I wanted to know how the intersection management system of the intersection would reduce the idling time of vehicles. I took an average of the time spent idling at four different intersections and found that the Continuous Flow intersection reduced the time of idling the most.


Using Stable Nitrogen Isotope Spectrometry To Analyze Elms And Phragmites As Potential Environmental Indicators For Nitrogen Pollution In The Jordan River

ENGINEERING: CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL

Nitrogen is the most abundant element in the atmosphere, and plays a crucial role in the environment. However, an excess amount of nitrogen can cause serious damage to certain
ecosystems. Aquatic ecosystems in particular can suffer major alterations due to the hypoxic process of eutrophication. Eutrophication is caused by the accumulation of excess nitrogen in an aquatic environment usually due to runoff from the land nearby. This nitrogen acts as a fertilizer for the aquatic plants, causing them to grow at an accelerated rate. When these plants die, their decomposition will consume the dissolved oxygen in the water. This will cause other aquatic organisms, such as animals, to suffocate (EPA, 2015).
During the summer of 2016 the Salt Lake Valley faced a water crisis because due to the eutrophication in Utah Lake. Utah Lake, connected to the Great Salt Lake through the Jordan River, experienced an algae bloom. Not only was the lake closed, but farmers who watered their crops with Jordan River water were forced to temporarily stop watering. Officials were not able to notify the public before over 100 people were sickened (FOX News, 2016).
Based on the location and use of the Jordan River, it faces the possibility of being too nitrogen-rich. Wastewater reclamation facilities, golf courses, and green lawns appear all along the banks of the river. All of these potential polluters could be contributing to the Jordan River’s current non-attain status under the Clean Water Act. It is classified as being too low in dissolved oxygen. Nitrification is listed as one of the main polluting factors. (DEQ, 2012)
Using stable nitrogen isotopes found in the vegetation along the river’s banks is a possible way of determining which kind of nitrogen pollutant could be contaminating the river. Previously collected samples showed isotopic consistency with two different species of plant: Ulmus (elm) and Phragmites australis (phragmites). By continuing to analyze the isotopes in Ulmus and Phragmites australis, it is possible to figure out where on the trophic level the nitrogen came from (Post, 2002). Nitrogen-14 and nitrogen-15 isotopes are more commonly found in different places in the environment. More nitrogen-15 would likely be found in feces, because it is organic material, than fertilizer which is manmade and would have a higher concentration of nitrogen-14.
In this study, sampling began at a site with the potential to be releasing excess amounts of nitrogen: a wastewater reclamation facility. Plants were collected just above and below the wastewater reclamation facility’s release. This facility is responsible for filtering feces- contaminated water and then releasing it back into the Millcreek tributary, which then joins the Jordan River. By varying the sample locations, it is thought possible to find the type of nitrogen pollutant contaminating the water, and potentially where it came from.


Exploring The Economic Efficiency Of Solar Power

ENGINEERING: CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL

Most current solar arrays rely on many large, expensive solar panels that produce electricity from standard sunlight distribution across the whole panel. Because photovoltaic cells produce electricity proportional to the number of photons hitting them, by focusing the same area of light as would land on a larger $300 panel, on a single $5 cell, you could theoretically produce the same electron flow at a fraction of the cost.


Plastic Is The New Rebar

ENGINEERING: CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL

The purpose of our project is to reduce plastic waste while preventing building failures at the same time. We wanted to know if recycled plastic could potentially improve the strength of concrete. We tested our question by mixing concrete and various shapes of plastic.


Composting For The Future

ENGINEERING: CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL

Within seconds you can make the decision to hurt or restore the environment. This experiment is exploring how much trash you can eliminate from our household waste by composting. My hypothesis is that you can reduce 60% of your household waste by composting, which was based off the research that 60% of all trash in landfills are recyclable. The procedure includes building a compost bin from the Home Depot, once that is finished, you need to insulate it. Buy a 4 by 8 sheet of insulation and cut out six squares that fits into each of the inside sides of the compost bin, this includes the top and the bottom of the compost bin as well. You then need to set up two trash cans, one for compostable materials, and one for landfill materials. At the end of each day at approximately the same time each day(control) measure the compostable waste and the landfill waste. Depending on how much trash or Landfill waste that is disposed of(independent) the weight of each type of trash(dependent) will differ. In my results, I found that approximately three pounds of trash out of my family’s average of nine pounds per day could be composted. Even though my hypothesis was incorrect, I still reduced 32.25% of my household waste, which can significantly increase the life of a landfill. This experiment can inform the public that composting can go a long way to make the earth a better place.


H2 Whoa

ENGINEERING: CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL

Our overall aim is to help eliminate the water shortage crisis in third-world countries around the world. In light of recent global events such as the Flint water crisis and the Rio de Janeiro bacterial water, we realized there is a need for a cheap, safe, simple and reusable water filter utilizing basic materials and simple methods. We considered combining a variety of existing methods for a better result. We used online sources to teach us about water filtering and water safety, proving that there is no filter like ours in the market. We observed that our project was successful because the chosen materials were effective in decontaminating the water. It was difficult to achieve a mostly clear water result without permitting the use of harder-to-access materials. It was also difficult to filter out contaminants without using chemicals. H2 Whoa used STEM to help solve a problem that as of now is a major problem for both the world and America. We focused mainly on science and engineering, trying to use our knowledge of H2 Whoa to create a water filter that fit every criteria. The engineering part was by far the most prominent, as it took a while to create a durable water filter. While math was used for accurate, precise and perfect measurements if our materials, we also used our 21st-century technology to create a website that is easy to access, mobile-friendly and detailed. Our final results showed us that we can build an efficacious result using elementary materials and methods that are normally overlooked. H2 Whoa can be used in several circumstances where clean water is unavailable, as water is one of our most important resources for daily life and survival.


Simple Earthquake Resistance

ENGINEERING: CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL

We wanted to know what shaped support would keep a house up the longest in an earthquake. We wanted a cheep alternative to shock absorbers for under developed countries like Haiti. After testing all the shaped supports we found x was the strongest.


Bee Safe Plants

ENGINEERING: ELECTRICAL & COMPUTER SCIENCE

Our problem is plants are being labeled as “bee friendly”, when they contain neonicotinoids, a classification of insecticides that harms and kills bees. Our solution is to create an app that tells the user whether or not the plants they are buying contain neonicotinoids by scanning the barcode and looking through a database.


Got I Net?

ENGINEERING: ELECTRICAL & COMPUTER SCIENCE

Our science fair team noticed that our school's Internet access is unreasonably [sluggish] when a multitude of students are using it. To combat this problem, we designed and built a system that caches web pages and other Internet resources as students use them. This system basically saves a copy of a web page, image, etc. whenever someone accesses it. The next time someone requests it, they get the saved copy. This is typically faster than retrieving it from a web server on the Internet. To research this, we [primarily] used the Internet, searching for information as the need arose. For example, we used Stack Overflow, a programming Q&A website, frequently. After researching, we acquired our project's materials through various means, assembled the hardware, and proceeded to configure the Raspberry Pi (a $35 computer about the size of a credit card), write the code, and debug it. To test this system, we [restricted] the actual Internet speed and measured the load times of various websites with and without our system. Subsequently, we averaged the load times and factored in the sites' sizes to [find] the effective speed at which the site was downloaded. We found that, at an actual Internet access speed of 1MB/s, our system provided an average improvement of about 133%. This fulfills our original objective. Our project could be run on high-end computers and help a school, or it, with the Raspberry Pi, could be used with a portable cellular hotspot to save users money.


Which Programming Language Computes The Fastest

ENGINEERING: ELECTRICAL & COMPUTER SCIENCE

Newly introduced coders need to know which programming language runs the fastest for calculation. Calculation speed plays an important role in choosing a programming language.


Laser Limbo Machine

ENGINEERING: ELECTRICAL & COMPUTER SCIENCE

The Limbo Game is very popular. Many people love playing it at parties or other events. In the original game though there are many ways you can get away with cheating. There is always that argument about who saw who get out. I want to be able to improve the limbo game by using technology instead of people. With my machine I will solve the argument problem with the laser. Once the lasers beam is broken some sort of alarm is set off letting the person know that they are out. Another small problem that my machine will improve is people will no longer have to hold the stick. There are motors on each part of the machine that will move the laser and the sensor up and down so people don’t have to. Without the need for 2 of the people to hold the bar that means that everyone will be able to play.With this machine it will be a way to make the Limbo Game not only fair but also fun for everyone playing.


My Magic Steps

ENGINEERING: ELECTRICAL & COMPUTER SCIENCE

Human hands can only have so many things in them at a time and when your phone dies in the the middle of nowhere and your hands are full there is no way to charge your phone. What if there was a attachment that took kinetic energy that is spent in walking and turned it into electricity. A dynamo does this exact function it transforms movement into electricity. Now if a dynamo was hooked up to a shoe it would not generate its own power, at least not without other components such as lever and the cage that holds all of the components together. This attachment works with the shoe due to the fact that every step taken pushes the lever down and at the same time makes the dynamo spin and produce an electrical current. The electricity is all from the energy that you put into walking. This allows for the energy that you waste while walking to be “reused”. With that, the possibilities of good uses grows from just charging a electronic device or just simply lighting small LED systems. Electricity is a marvelous thing that has empowered the modern world and to obtain it from the simple action of walking is more than marvelous.


Coding “The Incredible Machine: Creating A Simplified Coding System For Engineering Education

ENGINEERING: ELECTRICAL & COMPUTER SCIENCE

As far as STEM and science education goes, the United States is falling behind. We are producing fewer new scientists, mathematicians, and engineers. The impact of this is far greater than just a shift in the jobs occupied by Americans. According to the U.S. Department of Labor, only 5% of U.S. workers are employed in fields related to science and engineering, yet they are responsible for more than 50% of our sustained economic expansion. Our growth, stability, and opportunities for economic prosperity rely on the interest and work in these fields. A step away from these areas is a step away from medical breakthroughs, shifts in the boundaries of our mechanical capability, and innovations that would impact lives around the world. The primary solution to solve for these impacts is garnering interest and building capability in STEM fields in the rising generation. Traditional education alone cannot solve this. Out-of-school involvement builds the interest to a greater degree and allows students to pursue independent projects that more closely reflect their passions. The more self-directed approach of informal education helps students learn to be self-motivated and to set and reach individual goals. This results in learning that is more personally applicable and long-term. Additionally, non-traditional STEM education can significantly strengthen young people’s grasp of concepts and enthusiasm for ideas within these critical fields of study. What is preventing the obvious solution to the STEM shortage from becoming a reality? The answer lies within the three fundamental problems of STEM education: inaccessibility of materials, lack of experience, and the disadvantages for rural communities.

The purpose of this project is to create a kit, curriculum and software materials to enable less technical educators to teach a hands-on introduction to engineering class. This involves developing curriculum, a support website, writing javascript code in the format of an Amazon Echo “skill” to teach concepts, and developing a drag and drop programming tool for use by software engineering students for use in teaching the curriculum. This project is designed to address 3 key deficits in STEM education:


Swarm Robotics

ENGINEERING: ELECTRICAL & COMPUTER SCIENCE

Our project will incorporate three or more small, simple robots to work together and locate a cube shaped object.


Microbial Fuel Cells Vs Nuclear Energy Identifying The Most Efficient Power Source, "Replacement For Fossil Fuels

ENGINEERING: ELECTRICAL & COMPUTER SCIENCE

Power sources have become an ever more focused topic as the amount of fossil fuels decreases. An obvious replacement for this energy source is Nuclear Energy, but many are afraid of the waste that already comes from Power Plants around the world, not to mention if we increase the amount. There is the possibility of yet another source of Energy, MFCs or Microbial Fuel Cells use electron transference with Microorganisms as an Energy source. These are two potential energy sources as a replacement for Fossil Fuels when they run out, Nuclear Energy is very efficient and has tons of fuel for the Power Plants to operate since Uranium is the most abundant Metal in the Earth. MFCs use Microorganisms and they all have Electron Transference abilities or have been genetically modified to have Electron Transference. Nuclear Power Plants produce Uranium and Plutonium waste and it’s radioactive, how to deal with that? The Shewanella Putrefaciens has an anti-Radioactive property which depletes the radioactive properties of anything that it comes in contact with, this means that that problem is Minimized and then that waste can be taken to a landfill to be disposed of. MFCs cause the breeding of many Microorganisms, why does it not produce as much energy as the Nuclear Power Plants? Because Nuclear Power Plants are efficient they generate it all in one big huge plant while MFCs are small box sized devices so its operation is minimal making Nuclear energy the ideal choice for our Energy Productions.


Off The Rails With Superconductors The Future Of Frictionless Transportation

ENGINEERING: ELECTRICAL & COMPUTER SCIENCE

On February 14, 1905 the first patent for transportation using magnetic levitation (MagLev) was filed and today there are four MagLev trains in commercial operation. MagLev trains offer greater comfort, higher speeds, less energy consumption, and lower maintenance costs than traditional wheeled trains. Science is exploring the use of superconductors in combination with strong magnets for the next generation of MagLev train. Superconductors and magnets produce an effect whereby they lock or “pin” at a set distance from each other resisting movement closer to or further away. MagLev trains have no wheels rolling down the rails so the purpose of this research is to observe the influence that varying the distance between the rails has on the ability of a superconductor, representing a train using superconductors, to resist shear forces while traveling along the tracks. To measure this ability a platform was assembled containing the magnetic rails configurable in three widths apart. A measurable variable wind source was used to measure the speed at which the superconductor in motion was sheared from the track. Liquid nitrogen was used to cool the superconductor to its superconducting state, which proved to be a challenge because of the special handling required by liquid nitrogen. Data was collected for the width of the rails and wind speed around the point at which the superconductor would shear off the rails. The data indicated that the rail width nearest the width of the superconductor withstood the greatest shear force while the narrowest width required the least shear force thus confirming the expected outcome.


Human Powered Generator: An Engineering Solution (Phase Iii)

ENGINEERING: ELECTRICAL & COMPUTER SCIENCE

Currently, there is not a way to generate energy that simultaneously makes people happier and healthier. My goal is to create a bicycle that can generate power and is safe enough to use in a public location. I started this project two years ago. The first year, I built a prototype that produced electricity, but it could not safely charge a battery because the voltage produced was too high. Last year, I continued the project and reduced the voltage, and I was able to safely charge a battery. However, the wires and equipment were not covered which posed a significant safety concern. In addition, when the battery is being charged by the generator, the battery produces hydrogen gas which is very flammable and potentially explosive. The engineering problem I am attempting to solve this year is: How can I make my human-powered generator safe enough to put in a public location?


Simple Power

ENGINEERING: ELECTRICAL & COMPUTER SCIENCE

To create a simple electricity generator. Using the simple system of a magnet(s) between coils of copper wire, a small amount of electricity can be generated.


Card Crash

ENGINEERING: ELECTRICAL & COMPUTER SCIENCE

We wanted to find out whether or not magnetic stripe cards are corrupted by exposure to phones, and we found that they are not.


Building A Tachometer For A Robotic Flywheel

ENGINEERING: ELECTRICAL & COMPUTER SCIENCE

The project chosen is Building a Tachometer for a Robotic Flywheel. I used a Raspberry Pi and a BreadBoard to build a circuit with a phototransistor to sense light and make calculations to give the output of the RPMs of the wheel. The Raspberry Pi software was coded using Python. The tests done were to compare the PWM on ratio of the motor to the RPM output of the motor at multiple set speeds. I also tested the distance a ping pong ball flew at each RPM and the accuracy of the ping pong ball at each distance.


An Experimental Study Of Diffie Hellman Key Exchange Using W Shift Encryption Algorithm

ENGINEERING: ELECTRICAL & COMPUTER SCIENCE

Security became a major concern as online networking became more and more popular. Communicating over insecure networks using secure communications is necessary between two parties. The Diffie-Hellman (D-H) key agreement protocol is a practical method for establishing a shared secret over an unsecured communication channel. It is widely used nowadays by applications such as Apply Pay and Android Pay.

D-H is used to secure a variety of internet services. However, research published recently suggests that the parameters in use for many D–H Internet applications at that time are not strong enough to prevent compromise by very well-funded attackers, such as the security services of large governments.

To provide better security we need a better encryption processes for security. In my previous years’ science fair project, I designed and implemented the W-shift encrypt method using the java programming language. In this project, I propose an encryption with enhanced public key encryption protocol for security. I intend to enhance the difficulty in security on networks by improving the Diffie-Hellman encryption algorithm through adding W-shift algorithm. With sufficiently complicated inputs, the D-H encryption should be improved. The performance of the algorithms is compared with existing algorithms.


Trajectory Prediction Of Atlantic Hurricanes With A Multi Layer Perceptron Artificial Neural Network

ENGINEERING: ELECTRICAL & COMPUTER SCIENCE

Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) have been used to solve a wide range of problems. With the remarkable ability to derive meaning from complicated or imprecise data, ANNs can be used to extract patterns and detect trends that are too complex to be noticed by humans, and also have the ability to revolutionize technology through enabling computers to have human-like behaviors and create self-aware artificial intelligence. In my last year’s science fair project, I discussed the effect of a neural network structure on its performance. In this project, I am going to use a neural network to predict hurricane trajectory.

Hurricanes constitute major natural disasters that lead to destruction and loss of lives. These losses can be heavily reduced via the development of hurricane forecasting techniques. ANN is a useful tool to predict the tropical cyclone tracks because of its learning capacity and advantage in simulating the nonlinear systems. This project aims to improve trajectory prediction of the Atlantic hurricanes using artificial neural network techniques. The tracks of three occurred in August, 2015 (DANNY, ERICK, FRED) are predicted by a multi-layered neural network using NOAA Atlantic hurricane database (HURDAT2). The predictions are compared with the actual tracks of the three hurricanes. The neural network demonstrated a superb performance, with minimal inaccuracies.


Wireless Power Transfer

ENGINEERING: ELECTRICAL & COMPUTER SCIENCE

My project addresses the issues caused by the use of fossil fuels, and renewable energy sources. Wireless power transfer has been a dream for many for hundreds of years. I have found an inexpensive way to transmit electricity across a few feet with household items; more precisely: a microwave. The use of wireless electricity along with satellites and other highly efficient space bound energy sources will cut down on the use of fossil fuels and create a reliable and renewable source of energy for the world.


A Method For Large Specimen High Resolution 3 D Laser Scanning Microscopy

ENGINEERING: MATERIALS & BIOMEDICAL

The purpose of this research was to devise a methodology to improve the technique to acquire high resolution 3-D images using confocal microscopy.
The research question is the feasibility of using laser scanning confocal microscopy to measure atrial wall thickness.
For some background information, confocal microscopy began in 1955, where a renowned scientist Marvin Minsky began to construct images using a point of light that would serially move across a plane and piece together the image. This method would eliminate almost all of the undesirable light that is obtained from the average microscope. From Minsky’s experiments, confocal microscopy has greatly evolved with the progression of modern technology. The small apertures that were in Minsky’s original structure were kept, but the advancement in optic technology has improved the speed and quality of the images stored. Additionally, current samples of tissue are dyed in fluorophores, which are stimulated by certain types and intensities of light.
I expected the outcome to have the images be significantly improved and the walls easily being able to be measure.
The procedure began with thee surgery done on the vertebrates, which occurred beforehand and the hearts were sectioned and categorized. From there, the tissue would be cryo-sectioned using the cryostat into 150 microns thick samples. Subsequently, the samples were immersed in a bath filled with fluorescent markers to stain the sample for 24 hours on a rocker. From the obtained 150 micron slices, the microscope would come into play. First, the slide would be properly cleaned and covered in oil and placed face down on top mount. The X and Y axes would be set at 600 microns per second, zoom factor of 1.42, and the format of 1024x1024 microns. The lasers would be set to 1 percent of laser power, although this could vary given the type of tissue. Then, using the bright-field mode, the outline of the cell would be found, emphasizing the epicardium and endocardium on the transmural sample. Finally, the average Z-depth would be established and the sample would be ready to be analyzed through measuring out the image and comparing them
The major risk assessment was using the cryostat, which could harm the tissue and the person if improperly used. However, with careful usage and protective gear, such as safety glasses and latex gloves, this wouldn’t be an issue.


The Effect Of Density On Sound Blocking

ENGINEERING: MATERIALS & BIOMEDICAL

We decided to test how density affects the sound blocking abilities of a material. We took 9 materials including sheet rock, cardboard, foam board and several other insulating materials, and conducted sound through them
at different frequencies. We used the data we collected to determine which materials blocked the best.


Which Water Repellent Works Best On Nylon Hammocks

ENGINEERING: MATERIALS & BIOMEDICAL

Testing 3 popular water repellent sprays by spraying them on nylon hammock material to determine which product will keep a hammock dry on a rainy day.


Analysis Of Retinal Fundus Images To Detect Macular Degeneration Using Machine Learning Methods

ENGINEERING: MATERIALS & BIOMEDICAL

This project uses the “Bag of Visual Words” computer vision algorithm to automatically detect age-related macular degeneration in retinal fundus images. Macular degeneration is the most prevalent cause of blindness in the elderly. Early detection of the disease can substantially decrease the progress of this disease, making it important for treatment. Currently, there are no automated methods to detect the disease from images. An approach was developed to identify macular degeneration in an easier and more efficient way. First, key points of training images were extracted and split into clusters which were categorized as diseased or normal. Then, this information was used to predict the class of test images. The designed method gives doctors a faster way to discover if patients have age-related macular degeneration, allowing them to prepare for treatment earlier.


Exploring Sustainable Materials Made From Waste Products And Their Applications

ENGINEERING: MATERIALS & BIOMEDICAL

The need to incorporate fiber-reinforced plastic into the auto, aerospace, and construction industries is increasing every day. Natural fibers and plastics offer advantages over metals. The question of this project is “can all the wastes (bio-wastes, plastic wastes, and baking soda waste) be used to create a complete green material that is strong, light, renewable, and does not conduct heat easily, and does not react with chemicals?” The goals of this project are 1. Use waste to design a natural fiber reinforced composites with HDPE as a polymer matrix. 2. Investigate density, chemical, physical, and thermal properties for different natural fiber composites. HDPE grocery bags are used as polymer matrix. Woven natural fibers with different layers including grass, jute, and cotton, and corn husk are designed in order to maximize the strength of the composite. Pretreatment of natural fibers using industry waste baking soda is examined. Results show that pretreatment of natural fibers did not improve mechanical properties of the HDPE composites. All the natural fiber composites meet the design goals, but the grass composites show strongest mechanical properties than other natural fibers.


Clot

ENGINEERING: MATERIALS & BIOMEDICAL

Battlefield situations are very dangerous and medical attention is an absolute necessity for those who find themselves in them. Coagulants are a now common and effective form of medical attention, but as of now they are applied by someone other than the person getting shot. This is problematic when you factor in the environment they are in and think about how hard it is to apply this needed help immediately. My design for a coagulant filled vest is to be worn under a ballistic vest so in case the vest fails and is punctured that this vest will also be punctured making it so that the force of the bullet and gravity bring coagulant into the wound. The coagulant filled vest would be made out of a stretchy material such as nylon or spandex so that it would be skin tight, making it so that the coagulant is only going into the wound and not just falling down the wearer’s torso. Current testing with a BB gun show that gravity can carry plenty of coagulant in through a hole and future testing with firearms will help show whether or not the force of the bullet will carry any with it.


Which Type Of Lacrosse Helmet Is The Best To Prevent Concussions?

ENGINEERING: MATERIALS & BIOMEDICAL

My problem question is which type of lacrosse helmet is the best to prevent concussions? I believe the best type of helmet for preventing concussions in lacrosse is the STX Stallion 600. I believe this because this helmet has multiple absorbent pads inside the helmet that helps head-on impact protection. The independent variable is the impact on the helmet and the dependent variable is the force of the impact.
The slosh effect is the movement of the brain, which is floating in the cerebrospinal fluid inside the skull. When the head experiences an impact, the brain sloshes inside the skull and can rotate or strike the inside of the cranium. When I conduct my experiment, I will tighten the helmet to fit the mannequin head. In this experiment, I will be measuring the force of impact with an accelerometer. This device measures acceleration. Acceleration is how quickly an object speeds up, slows down, or changes direction. The accelerometer is measured in m/s² (meters per second squared). I will test three different helmets: the STX Stallion 600, the Cascade R, and the Evo Warrior. I will use a PVC pipe and place the bottom of the pipe on the helmet. Then, I will drop a lacrosse ball from the top of the pipe and it will fall and hit the helmet to create a constant impact for each trial. I will measure the force with an accelerometer inside a mannequin head that will be placed inside each helmet.
According to the data the average (mean) for the Cascade R is 63.26 m/s², the STX Stallion 600 is 62.81 m/s², and the Evo Warrior is 61.18 m/s². The Evo Warrior helmet has the smallest mean. Therefore, the Evo Warrior is the most protective out of the three helmets. The Cascade R helmet has the biggest mean. Therefore, the Cascade R is the least protective out of the three helmets. My hypothesis was incorrect, the Evo Warrior was the most protective helmet out of the three helmets. First, I learned about acceleration, and how an accelerometer works. I also learned about concussions, and about the slosh effect. Then, I learned about the top three most protective helmets in lacrosse, and the science behind them. Finally, I learned which helmet is the most protective in lacrosse. Possibilities for future study are testing different angles on the helmet, and comparing the protection of helmets to different sports.


Determining Fuel Conservation With Interstate Interchange Modification

ENGINEERING: MATERIALS & BIOMEDICAL

Our project focuses on measuring fuel conserved by vehicles using our proposed modified on and off ramp.We think we will conserve enough fuel to make a substantial difference in the fuel consumed..


How Does The Hardness Of A Golf Ball Affect Distance And Spin?

ENGINEERING: MATERIALS & BIOMEDICAL

Abstract
I studied whether the hardness of a golf ball affects its spin and distance. I chose three balls with various degrees of hardness. I believed that the Callaway would be best for child and female amateurs because of their slower club head speed, and the Titleist would be best for the male amateur and the pro because of their faster club head speeds. No one would hit the Srixon best because it is too hard to compress. I believed that overall the Titleist would perform the best.
First, I performed a pilot test to determine when subjects would need a break because of fatigue. For my study, I had all seven subjects hit each ball 24 times, alternating every four balls. Four subjects hit the Callaway the farthest, two hit the Titleist the farthest, and one person hit the Srixon the farthest. For backspin, four people hit the Callaway best, one hit the Titleist best, and two hit the Srixon best.
I proved my hypothesis that the medium hardness golf ball would perform best in both categories to be false. The softest ball, which is believed to perform best with players with a slower club head speed, was the best ball for the subject with the slowest club head speed and the subject with the fastest club head speed. The most unexpected result that I found was that the subject with the second slowest club head speed hit best with the hardest ball, which is supposed to be for players with a very fast club head speed. Overall, most people hit best with the softest ball.


Power Protecting Pouches

ENGINEERING: MATERIALS & BIOMEDICAL

Cold temperatures can reduce battery life on cell phones. This project compares four different fabrics and a control condition in their ability to maintain a cell phone's battery when it was put in a freezer for one hour. Neoprene and wool pouches helped maintain battery life better than the other fabrics and the control condition. When neoprene and wool were combined, they protected the battery even more. These results could be used by creating power protecting pouches in coats for workers who spend lots of time in cold weather.


Get A Grip

ENGINEERING: MATERIALS & BIOMEDICAL

I decided to do this project because when I play indoor soccer I’m not sure if I should wear indoor shoes or cleats. Some of my coaches told me to wear indoor shoes so I wouldn’t get injured (it is said that your cleats get caught in the turfand you can tear ligaments). Others told me to wear cleats because the turf isn’t any different than grass. Some research studies have shown that turf causes more ACL injuries than grass does because it “grabs” the cleat and causes less mobility. They said that turf shoes have a better performance outcome on turf than cleats do. I wanted to see if this is true about cleats on turf. I decided to build a pendulum (represents the leg) with a cleat attached to the bottom. As the leg swung, it brushed over a patch of either grass or turf (no surface for control). I would then measure the speed using a speed gun. If the speed was lower than no surface then there is more traction.


I've Got You Covered: Evaluating Wilderness Survival Blankets

ENGINEERING: MATERIALS & BIOMEDICAL

My project is about finding the best option for a survival blanket in the wilderness: a household trash bag, a heavy-duty (contractor) trash bag, a fleece or wool blanket, or a thermal blanket. My hypothesis was that the thermal blanket would be the warmest of these, closely followed by the fleece blanket (at a lower cost). I did not think that the trash bags would be nearly as warm.
I researched (1) body heat loss, (2) body heat compared to lightbulb heat, (3) experts’ opinions of thermal blankets, (4) temperatures in the mountains, and (5) typical blanket costs. I tested the covers by setting up sample stations on the ground outside during November. Each station was a 100 W lightbulb beneath a basket and covered with one of the four covers, and also one uncovered basket. I measured the temperature in each basket throughout the day.
My hypothesis was not fully supported by the data. The test results indicated that all covers were effective at warming. The temperatures for the heavy-duty trash bag, fleece blanket, and thermal blanket were all about 50 degrees F warmer than outside temperatures; the differences were usually within only a few degrees of each other. (The household trash bag was about 10 degrees F less warm than these.)
Because warmth is not the only consideration for wilderness survival blankets, I also evaluated other features (comfort, packability, waterproofness, durability, cost) based on opinion and experience (not tested). Overall, based on my experiment and these other features, I would recommend that you pack a heavy-duty trash bag for your next wilderness adventure.


Personal Air Quality Alerts

ENGINEERING: MATERIALS & BIOMEDICAL

In the United States more than 23 million people have asthma and approximately 13.6 million adults have been diagnosed with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). People with respiratory problems need a system that alerts them when air quality is bad because it will help them know when they are at risk of respiratory attacks. Even people without respiratory problems should avoid bad air.

The problem with the current systems in Utah is that there are only three monitors in all of Salt Lake County that report PM2.5 levels. This means that the distance from a PM2.5 station and an individual can be far enough apart that the reported data isn’t useful.

I engineered a solution to the problem by creating a mobile app that connects to a microcontroller to collect pollution data. This is a better solution because it will tell you accurate pollution data for your location. This program also sends its data to a central place for reporting on a website. This means that my solution turns anyone with a mobile phone into a potential pollution data collector.


An Evaluation Of The Possibility Of Using Alternative Materials In Swamp Coolers

ENGINEERING: MATERIALS & BIOMEDICAL

Tamarisk is an invasive tree species in the Western United States. My project investigated the possibility of using tamarisk wood instead of aspen wood in swamp coolers. It concluded that since there was not a significant difference between the cooling properties of tamarisk and aspen wood, tamarisk wood might be a viable alternative material for use in swamp coolers.


Sit Up Straight: Developing An Ergonomic Chair From Scratch

ENGINEERING: MATERIALS & BIOMEDICAL

Last year I tested which, out of four postures caused the most and least amount of stress on the spine. My results showed that “Posture 1- leaning back on two legs” applied the least amount of stress. My criteria included: #1- Must support “Posture 1- leaning back on two legs.” #2- Safe for student and classroom use. #3- Must be stackable for efficient storage in the classroom. I then engineered my chair to support that posture. I removed a set of legs from one chair and added them to the prototype, I found that I needed to make the legs longer to allow the chair to lean to the appropriate posture. I added two different sets of 2x4 wood block fillers the first were 4.5”, the second were 7”. My chair met the first two criteria, but since the legs don’t collapse, it isn’t able to stack. I want to improve my chair to for it to be able to stack efficiently in the classroom. This project was more of a challenge than I have originally anticipated. Sometimes things seem easier than they actually are, especially without having the right experience and resources. I leaned that good time management, perseverance, problem solving skills, and tenacity are what make a project pull through the rough spots and end up being great.


Wind Turbines Which Turbines Worked The Best

ENGINEERING: MECHANICAL

I tested different shapes of blades on my turbine to see which ones picked up the most washers


Wheeling Water

ENGINEERING: MECHANICAL

Every 60 seconds a child dies to diseases due to water conditions. This project was set out to help this. I wanted to determine what the best low-cost solution for building a water transportation device for developing countries would be. I wanted to learn this because I recently saw pictures and learned about the water conditions and the amount of deaths produced because of it. My hypothesis was that the best way would be a bike trailer and I believed that I could create a fully functioning prototype from parts that could be easily accessed and assembled quickly in third world countries. I created this by using various old bike parts and steel pipe with a number of tools. The result was a functioning prototype that can carry up 1523% more water than the traditional way of caring it in pots and buckets and does it 3.1 times faster. This trailer could free up to 15 women or 30 girls to go to school or receive an education.


Perpetual Motion: Pipe Dream Or Possibility

ENGINEERING: MECHANICAL

This is a study aimed at creating a perpetual motion machine that generates energy without burning fuel of any sort (especially fossil fuels) and without creating emissions, with a focus on the viability of various magnets as the perpetual energy source.


The Water Bug: Creating A Remotely Operated Vehicle For Water Quality Testing

ENGINEERING: MECHANICAL

One of the greatest water quality problems Utah is currently facing is large amounts of phosphorous and nitrogen in rivers and bodies of water. In July 2016, Utah Lake was closed to the public for a time due to a large algae growth that could be toxic to humans. This growth was primarily caused by excess nitrogen. In turn excesses of these nutrients can harm cattle and wildlife drinking from these water sources, kill fish due to lack of oxygen in the water, and prematurely age the body of water. In 2013, the Utah division of Water Quality estimated the cost of testing and treating Utah's public water systems to control for phosphates and nitrogen at $1.2 billion. But what about rural cities and towns without the large tax base to help pay for this control of water quality? What about farmers, ranchers, and other private landowners with bodies of water on their property? How do they ensure the water quality of their systems? The purpose of my project was to develp a low cost system, including a remotely operated vehicle, for testing water quality that can be used by public agencies as well as private land owners with rivers, lakes, reservoirs or ponds on their property.


Electrohydrodynamic Thrusters

ENGINEERING: MECHANICAL

This experiment was set up to determine if high-frequency Ultraviolet light had any noticeable affect on the thrust produced by an electrohydrodynamic propulsion device. If the thrust of electrohydrodynamic (EHD) thrusters could be increased significantly, then they could serve as a cleaner, simpler, and cheaper alternative to typical aerial propulsion such as jet engines or helicopters.


A Robotic Approach To De Escalating Police/Civilian Interactions During Traffic Stops

ENGINEERING: MECHANICAL

Goal
Our goal is to create a robot that acts as an intermediary between the police officer and the civilian for traffic violation stops. The robot uses two way video and voice communication to prevent stressful face-to-face interactions and confrontations to de-escalate potentially stressful situations during a traffic stop. The robot further has the capability to photograph, print, provide visual surveillance and perform chemical analysis.
Product Market Survey
In 2012, police conducted 26 million traffic stops. 55,000 civilian injuries and deaths occurred during these encounters. With scenes captured by phone and body cameras being broadcasted in the news, police have been subject to severe criticism. We conducted a survey with 40 drivers, 38 of which were Caucasian, to seek their reactions to having a robot approach their car, instead of a police officer. We asked them about how nervous they would feel with an armed police officer approaching their vehicle when pulled over, and when an unarmed robot approaches them instead, and we found that only 7.5% respondents felt “Not Nervous” with an officer. In contrast, 62.5% respondents felt “Not Nervous” with a robot. This survey gave us the confidence that our product would be viable and could help in decreasing stressful situations between civilians and police officers. We interviewed Salt Lake City Police chief, Mike Brown, to see whether or not this concept could be used by the police departments. He told us that traffic stops are some of the most dangerous responsibilities of an officer and this idea was exciting and has merit. He offered to help us demo the robot at law enforcement shows to introduce it to other officials. We then talked about the concept with Utah Attorney General Sean Reyes and Salt Lake County District Attorney Sim Gill to get their legal views on whether or not this would affect the legal aspect of traffic stops for communications. Both agreed it would make traffic stops more efficient and safe. Both were enthusiastic about the idea.
Product Development
We started Phase 1 where we designed a robot. It had four tires and an extending and retracting turret. The tires were not optimal for the terrain that we were testing, and we moved on to a tracked system in Phase 2 of our construction. In this phase, we fabricated the individual assemblies needed to build the robot. This phase used tracks as well as a linear slide for extension of the camera mount.
We are ready to move on to Phase 3 of construction where we will use industrial parts to construct the robot to be more rugged as well as more applicable for real world testing. We intend to demo this product to the Police and at shows to garner interest in purchasing the product and to build market awareness.


Efforts To Make Treamill Running More Realistic

ENGINEERING: MECHANICAL

The objective for this project was to produce a treadmill that could more accurately simulate an outdoor run. To do this, a video was created, which not only showed changing scenery, but included the changing grades of the trail displayed at any particular point throughout the course. The video prototype was constructed as the result of research, mathematics, and lots of running. An outdoor course in Wheeler Farm Park, Draper, Utah, was chosen and recorded through use of a GoPro. Following this, altitude measurements were taken at each point of the course and distance measurements were taken in between said points. This data was then plugged into the slope formula (rise over run) to produce the grade of each part of the trail. The grades were added to the video footage of the course, enabling runners to both see the trail and change the grade with it on a treadmill. The prototype was successful in that runners could see changing scenery and view a specific course without actually traveling. However, the simulation was not ideal. A treadmill with the capabilities to create a downhill slope could not be located and it was difficult to keep a large video screen in place while the treadmill was in motion. Finer improvements will have to be made in later developments.


Improved Sleeping Aid

ENGINEERING: MECHANICAL

The purpose of this project is to develop a sleep quality improvement aid that provides as much of an ideal mobile sleep environment as possible. The product is to be used in an uncomfortable sleeping scenario like traveling in a plane or car. The final design consists of a memory foam neck rest with a deep, concealing hood (athletic/breathable material) sewn onto it. The purpose of the neck rest is to allow for better neck alignment while sitting down and to provide more comfort. The intention of the hood is to reduce noise, temperature, and light levels to make a more sleep-friendly environment while on the go. The base of the hood is sewn onto the inside seam of the neck rest. The hood conceals most of the face from the hairline down to the bottom of the nose/lip region. Air is capable of travelling freely and efficiently throughout the interior of the hood allowing increased breathability and comfort. A survey was devised to examine whether or not the final product accomplished this goal. It was distributed to thirty five secondary students who wore the sleeping aid and then promptly filled out the survey that asked several questions to see if the hood met certain criterions for an ideal sleep environment. A sampling of the survey questions reveal 88.6% of people liking it, 97.1% stating it created a good mobile sleep environment, while only 31.4% said it reduced volume.


Reverse Thrust Rockets

ENGINEERING: MECHANICAL

According to our current understanding of physics, faster than light travel is impossible. This shouldn’t prevent us from trying, though. In situations of relativistic travel, there isn’t a way to slow down effectively without harming the ship or cargo. We’ve been working on creating a liquid rocket engine design that allows for high speeds and transitions smoothly between acceleration and deceleration.
We’ve worked on various designs and tested them to find the most efficient system. We’re currently working on a more durable rocket and fuel efficiency. So far in our testing, there have been some bumps but from these disasters, we’ve found better designs and helped us identify problems with our fuel source.
We’ve found a few effective designs and we’ve identified certain problems in our thinking. We haven’t made any official conclusions based off of our tests but we’ve met a few of our goals and we hope to continue further.


Automatic Dog Feeding Machine

ENGINEERING: MECHANICAL

The purpose of my project was to create a machine that would feed people's pets while they are on vacation. The electric timer turns on the motor, which turns the wheel, dispensing the food. My machine works quite well, but there were many problems that had to be resolved before it would work consistently. I created four diagrams before I could find the right solution. My machine works well, but if I were to make an improvement on my project in the future, I would make the groove for the ball bearings larger in diameter.


What Object Will Go Further When It's Launch From A Potato Gun

ENGINEERING: MECHANICAL

I will test 5 objects when it's launched from a potato gun and I will see what object goes further. Potato guns can come in all shapes, sizes and configurations. Depending on the size of the barrel, which is the hole where you put the object that you are going to shoot.The five objects that I tested on this was an egg, snowball, water bottle, muffin, and a onion.


How Piezoelectric Crystals Can Produce Electric Energy In Everyday Life

ENGINEERING: MECHANICAL

In this Science Fair Project I decided to explore and hopefully find an answer to the question: Can piezoelectric crystals provide another form of renewable and sustainable energy? In my research I stumbled over ‘magical switches’ called piezoelectric sensors. I got really excited about the idea that you could simply create electrical energy by applying a force to a material. I researched the size of these elements and discovered that they can be relatively small. So what if I combine a large amount of these elements and place them in an environment where they would constantly be deformed, thus producing electric energy. For example: mounted in a floor tile in a supermarket or elsewhere, or even better in a freeway, or simply in a bicycle tire or a sole of a shoe. Would those piezoelectric elements produce enough energy to power, for example, an electric device?

The research about this topic lead the idea to test the possibility of piezoelectric crystals implemented in a shoe sole, to possibly provide enough energy to charge a small battery. I decided to test two different piezoelectric elements: a bendable element and a disk element. Those were integrated into the spokes of a bicycle and a shoe sole. The amount of energy that was produced under deformation was measured and recorded. Thereafter a formula was used to calculate how long it would take in hours to charge an AAA battery. The results are documented in my research.


Ideal Tire Pressure For The Junior Rider

ENGINEERING: MECHANICAL

In this experiment, I tested road bike tire pressure for a junior rider. Tire pressure could mean winning the race or losing the race. There have been tests on what tire pressure you should use only for riders 110 lbs. and above. Which made me think to test a junior rider with the weight of 90-100lbs. to complete the data for the other results. I planned to test 70psi, 80psi, 90psi, 100psi, 110psi because those were the most common tire pressures used by riders except for 70 psi. In my hypothesis, I predicted that 100psi would work the best because it would be able to absorb bumps if it were outside and it would have low rolling resistance on the smooth rollers. The 110psi would have the least amount of rolling resistance on the smooth rollers. My independent variable was the tire pressures. My dependent variable was the distance travelled in ten minutes. The control variables were the following: power (100 watts), temperature of the testing place, the bike, the same rider, the same wheels and tires. I tested each tire pressure three times for ten minutes each. After the testing, I found the 110psi went the farthest by .1 miles. For every ten psi, the distance increased by 5% until 90psi-100psi the distance only increased by 2.3%. Then the distance went back to an increase of 5%. My hypothesis was proven incorrect because the 110 psi went the farthest. I then took this information and expanded it over a 50-mile course to make it significant. I found that riding at 15mph at 70 psi it would take 3 hours and 20 minutes. 80psi would take 3 hours and 12 minutes. 90psi would be 3 hours and 5 minutes. 100psi would take 3 hours. 110psi would take 2 hours and 53minutes. For future studies, I would like to test the tire pressures outside on a road to see if they would stay the same. In addition, I wonder if being a different weight would affect the tire pressures.


The Elimination Of Catching Edges For Beginner Snowboarders

ENGINEERING: MECHANICAL

Abstract
The most common injury for beginner snowboarders is the process of catching your edge. Over 100,000 beginner snowboarders break their wrist because of catching their edge.Catching your edge is when the rider lets his/her downhill edge touch the snow. When the riders downhill edge touches the snow it causes the rider to fall; either forward or backward depending on the edge. This is one of the most painful ways to fall and on top of causing broken wrists it also causes concussions. This design eliminates the possibility for beginners to catch their edge. After the device was built it was tested extensively on the snow. It will be tested by a 15 year old male and a 8 year old female. The 8 year old loved the device. It worked amazingly and completely eliminated the possibility of catching an edge. The device is fully removable and can be moved to the toe or heel edge. The device has currently been filed for a provisional patent, Title: Device for Preventing the Catching of an Edge for Snowboarders,U.S. Patent Application Ser. No. 62/461,213. Filed on February 20, 2017. The device worked and completely eliminated the possibility of catching an edge. The device completely exceeded all expectations and worked amazingly.


Thermal Expansion

ENGINEERING: MECHANICAL

The purpose of my experiment was to determine which materials were more susceptible to thermal expansion. Thermal expansion occurs when materials expand or contract when introduced to varying temperatures.

I began by testing the effect thermal expansion had on the length of materials. First, I measured the materials at their ambient (room) temperature using 8" caliper and multimeter thermocouple. Then, I placed the materials in a freezer and chilled the materials until they reached -7 degrees C. I then measured the length of the materials at the reduced temperature and recorded the results. Next, I put the materials into an oven and heated the materials to 95 degrees C. I then measured the length of the materials at their elevated temperature and recorded the results.

I reconfigured an equation I obtained from internet sources which calculated a change in the length of a material based on its known thermal expansion rate. Using the reconfigured equation, I took my calculator and calculated the thermal expansion rate for each material. The materials with the highest thermal expansion, when comparing the elevated temperature to the reduced temperature, were polyethylene, Teflon and ABS. The materials with the lowest thermal expansion were hardwood, PVC and titanium. However, the rate of thermal expansion was not consistent when I compared the ambient temperature to the elevated and reduced temperatures.

My hypothesis was both correct and incorrect. The plastics were more likely to have a higher rate of thermal expansion, but in some cases they also had the lowest.


Inflate Gate

MEDICINE & HEALTH SCIENCES

In our project we looked at soccer balls and how it affects the rate of concussions. We seen that some materials affect the force the ball exerts in different ways.


The Effectiveness Of Super Speed Juice

MEDICINE & HEALTH SCIENCES

The placebo effect is a very interesting subject. The placebo effect is a beneficial effect which is 100% the patient’s believing, or imagination. According to Medicinenet.com, it is “A remarkable phenomenon in which a placebo -- a fake treatment -- can sometimes improve a patient's condition simply because the person has the expectation that it will be helpful. The more a person believes they are going to benefit from a treatment, the more likely it is that they will experience a benefit.”5 Our team thought it would be interesting to test this theory on kids at our school. One problem in our community is that people don´t think positively and it affects their performance. Positive thinking helps kids out, but the problem is, they are not doing it. This problem is important because lots of children are thinking negatively, and their grades are suffering for it. If kids will start thinking positively, then they will essentially do better in school. We think we can prove this through our project.Overall our group did really well, but there are some things that we could have changed. One of the things that we could’ve changed were giving the kids the permission slips a week beforehand so they had time to fill them out and bring them back. I think our group also did really well on communicating with each other, and organizing what, and where we did our project. We proved our hypothesis correct.


Does The Methylxanthine Alkaloid Ingredient That Is In All Caffeine Raise Your Heart Equally In All Substances?

MEDICINE & HEALTH SCIENCES

Energy drinks are advertised as giving you energy but are they raising your heart rate? This project tests four different types of food and drink that contain methylxanthine Alkaloid, an ingredient in caffeine. The products are tested to see if your heart rate increases equally in all substances. My hypothesis was proven incorrect when the Monster Energy drink increased the heart rate dramatically compared to the Clif energy bar even though the caffeine milligrams were the same. Liquids absorb quicker than solids into the blood stream causing heart rates to increase at a faster rate. The experiment also showed that foods we consume everyday like chocolate and soda can raise heart rates as well, encouraging us to use all with moderation to keep our heart rates in a healthy zone.


The Effect Of Blueberries On Daphnia Heart Rate

MEDICINE & HEALTH SCIENCES

In mainstream media, there are a plethora of articles touting the effects a particular “miracle food”. These bold claims all have a common theme; one certain food or type of food can cure cancer or other medical ails. For example, blueberries are often cited as a “miracle food”. Usually praised for their high antioxidants, blueberries are said to decrease the risk of common heart problems. In order to test this claim Daphnia, the water flea, were used because of their high genetic similarity to humans. Moreover, because of their size, the amount of blueberry extract needed would be significantly less compared to a larger organism. The independent variable was the amount of blueberry concentrate (0%, .5%, 1%, 2%). The dependent variable was the heartrate of the Daphnia measured each hour for two hours. By measuring over the course of two hours, a trend could be seen of what effect the blueberries had and how long those effects lasted. The 2% concentrate group were found to become severely inactive when compared to the other experimental groups. The data showed an overall trend of decreasing the Daphnia’s heart rate. This provides some backing to the claim that blueberries do, to some degree, help with heart problems since heart rate is often used to help predict future illness.


Arf6 Inhibition Is Protective Against Acute Lung Injury

MEDICINE & HEALTH SCIENCES

Background: Acute lung injury (ALI), and its severe conjugate disease, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), derive from a shared biological mechanism called a “cytokine storm”, which results from a pulmonary injury or infection, and prompts an immense inflammatory response. Both of these diseases are taking the modern world by surprise, affecting almost 200,000 people, and killing roughly 40%. This study aims to research the GTPase, ARF6, and its role in ALI; and pose a future potential treatment for such disease. Navigen scientists, working closely with Dr. Dean Li’s lab, have discovered a chemical series of ARF6 inhibitors that are protective against LPS-induced ALI in a mouse model. Additionally ARF6’s genetic inhibition can also be protective against LPS-induced ALI. Specifically, we found endothelial ARF6 endothelial knockout mice are protected against this disease. This study aims to research GTPase ARF6’s role in ALI, and pose a future potential treatment for such disease.
Procedure: ARF6’s inhibition in ALI was tested two ways.
1.LPS was injected into the tracheas of anesthetized mice. An ARF6 small molecule inhibitor was administered intraperitoneally (IP) at 30 or 60 mg/kg at 0 or 3 hours after LPS injection. 24 hours after LPS was instilled, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected. BALF cell count and protein was then measured and observed.
2.The endothelial ARF6 knockout animals were tamoxifen induced as newborns. LPS was injected into the trachea, and BALF cell count and protein was measured and observed after 24 hours.
Result: Both genetic and small molecule inhibition of ARF6 lead to a decrease in BALF cell count. The cell counts were determined through a cytospin analysis, showing that >90% of BALF cells after LPS-induction were neutrophils, and that ARF6 inhibition reduces neutrophil infiltration. Similarly, genetic inhibition of endothelial ARF6 led to decreased BALF protein concentrations. ARf6 inhibition is protective against LPS-induced ALI vascular leakage.
Conclusion: The GTPase, ARF6, has an important role in many inflammatory responses that result in vascular leak. Inhibition of ARF6 provide a large defense against LPS-induced mouse models of ALI. This data possesses a new therapeutic target for the treatment of ALI/ARDS.


An Anti Inflammatory Drug With Anti Cancer Properties: Aspirin Inhibits Motility And Colony Formation Of Melanoma Cells And Transformed Melanocytes

MEDICINE & HEALTH SCIENCES

Melanoma incidence has increased dramatically in the past 30 years worldwide with treatment costs ranging in the billions of dollars. Acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin, ASA) is an anti-inflammatory drug that is known to have anti-cancer properties; ASA has demonstrated chemopreventive activity for colon, breast, and prostate cancer. For melanoma, the potential protective effects of ASA are unknown. The purpose of this investigation is to examine the chemopreventive mechanisms of ASA on motility and colony formation in melanoma cells and transformed melanocytes to enable future advances in prevention and therapy.
Cells used are from the cell lines MTG2 and A375, both human malignant melanoma cell lines, and Mel-STR and Mel-STM, which are transformed human melanocytes. All cells have two conditions, either treated with ASA or control (not treated with ASA). Methods used to assess the effects of ASA on canonical oncogenic traits of melanoma cells are a cell migration assay and matrigel invasion assay for determination of cell motility, a MTT assay to assess cell viability, and soft agar colony formation assay to determine cellular anchorage-independent growth.
Melanoma cells and transformed melanocytes treated with ASA showed decreased migration and invasion when compared to control-treated cells; this indicates that motility capacity of the cells is significantly reduced by ASA treatment. There were fewer colonies formed by cells treated with ASA, thus ASA inhibits colony formation of melanoma cells and transformed melanocytes. MTT assay showed that the cell growth rates are decreased only when cells were treated with very high concentrations (>1 mM) of ASA. Further identification of the mechanisms by which ASA affects melanoma cells will lead towards a future prospective trial to determine if ASA can mitigate melanoma risk in individuals at risk and may provide improvements in future therapeutic treatments.


Tracking The Migration Of Harbor Porpoise

MEDICINE & HEALTH SCIENCES

The purpose for my project is to see how much the coastal currents affect the migration of harbor porpoise by tracking them for their migration in the gulf of mexico. I will be using a sight called WhaleNet Archives to collect my data on three harbor porpoises. The data that I collected will help me graph them on a map where they have traveled. WhaleNet Archives gave me a list of 4-3 months of data to graph the longitude and latitude. When collecting the data my computer malfunctioned and deleted all my work for all three test subjects. The result were very similar to each other they were all in between the main currents their entire migration. The results made me look at the currents like a rut the farther you are out the harder it is to get in because of how powerful the rip tide is. This causes the root of a harbor porpoise to change, and have a impact of where they end up. Some important points I took away from this project would be that using satellite tracking helps get a better understanding of the sea and the way that porpoises live and move.


How Does A Tolerance To Caffeine Affect Heart Rate?

MEDICINE & HEALTH SCIENCES

For my science fair project, I tested how having a tolerance to caffeine affects heart rate. I hypothesized that heart rate would not be affected differently if a subject has built up a tolerance than if the subject has not built up a tolerance. Caffeine is a very strong stimulant drug that raises the blood level of epinephrine. Since it is such a strong drug, I believe that it will affect tolerant test subjects the same. For my experiment a timer, heart rate sensor, drinks with caffeine, and a survey is needed. To conduct the experiment, gather test subjects and then test them individually. Take the test subjects heart rate. Then, after taking their heart rate, have them drink either soda, brewed coffee, or brewed tea. Once the test subject finishes there drink, test their heart rate in 10 minute intervals for a total of 40 minutes. After the testing is complete and the data has been recorded, have the test subject take a survey. This survey will allow the subjects to be split into two groups, one which is tolerant and one which is not tolerant. After conducting the experiment, I found that the not tolerant test subjects had a very dramatic change in heart rate over the 40 minute time period. The tolerant test subjects on the other hand did not. I did not prove my hypothesis in the experiment. Heart rate is affected more when non tolerant people consume caffeine than when tolerant people consume caffeine. To further improve that results of my experiment I could have test in a quieter environment or I could have tested in 5 minute intervals instead of 10 minute intervals. Possibilities for further study would be to test and see if age changes the way caffeine affects heart rate or too see if weight also changes the way caffeine affects heart rate.


Pm2.5 Vs Sp O2: Does An Inversion Effect Oxygen Saturation?

MEDICINE & HEALTH SCIENCES

I researched the effects of inversion pollution, or PM 2.5 on oxygen saturation. I gathered a group of 16 participants under 18 years old, that live in the Salt Lake Valley. I then tested the participants' oxygen saturation after being inside and outside for at least 5 minutes. I repeated the previous on 1 yellow day and 1 orange day. I then averaged the oxygen saturation each of these days and compared the results. I found a decrease of 1.3% in oxygen saturation from green to yellow days and 0.6% from green to orange days. The difference was even more marked when looking at outside data only. Inversions affect oxygen levels.


The Role Of A Vertebrates Microbiome On Cortisol Levels

MEDICINE & HEALTH SCIENCES

The purpose for our science fair project is to see if having microorganisms increases your cortisol (stress) levels. We chose mice as our test sample because they are used as model organism for human beings. We wanted to see the effect of microbes on the mice. This gives us a good idea if humans should avoid or keep using products such as hand sanitizers and soaps, or antibiotics. We collected samples from completely sterile mice and non sterile mice with a litter and without, then we would compare them to each other. After we had collected the samples we extracted the cortisol using a centrifuge and put the solution into a ELISA cortisol kit. There was an issue while we were analyzing our kit so we were unable to get data that would create a good (0.9) R^2 value.


Which Milk Is Best For Your Diet

MEDICINE & HEALTH SCIENCES

This project tested correlations of low fat and whole milk on body weight


Blood Pressure And Heart Rate Response To Temperature

MEDICINE & HEALTH SCIENCES

Blood pressure and heart rate were measured on three subjects while submerged in three different temperatures of water and one snow burial.


Reading And Eye Movements

MEDICINE & HEALTH SCIENCES

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Cpap Compliance According To Comorbidity Presence

MEDICINE & HEALTH SCIENCES

Introduction
A significant number of patients with sleep apnea are not compliant in using their CPAP machine. Many of those patients also have one or more comorbidity (congestive heart failure, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease and stroke). Patients with comorbidities are at risk of a recurrence or worsening of a comorbidity by not using their CPAP machine. Along with the presence of a comorbidity being analyzed, whether or not the patient was in the intervention group (group of patients who received various educational emails throughout the duration of the study) or the control group was also analyzed for a difference in the CPAP use. The primary objective was to determine if a patient with one or more comorbidity would be more compliant in their CPAP use.
Methods
This study was a sub-analysis of a randomized, prospective CPAP compliance study to examine the relationship of comorbidities and educational intervention with CPAP compliance. The main data points being analyzed were whether or not the participant was placed in the intervention group, and whether or not the participant had one or more comorbidity present and compared to compliance.
Results
The analysis included 212 patients. 51 of which were in the control group and 61 were in the intervention group. Of the patients in the control group, 36 had one or more comorbidities. Of the participants in the intervention group, 31 had one or more comorbidities. A participant’s CPAP use was considered compliant if it totaled >= 4 hr/night for 70% of nights. The participants in the intervention group with one or more comorbidities were found to have a significantly higher compliance in the intervention vs control (81% vs 44%, p = 0.002). There was also a significantly higher compliance was the group with any comorbidities, regardless of control or intervention group (79% vs 49%, p = 0.001).
Conclusion
Patients with one or more comorbidities in the intervention group had a higher CPAP compliance rate than those without comorbidities.


Predicting Animal Population Growth With Models

MEDICINE & HEALTH SCIENCES

The purpose of this project was predicting an animal's growth rate/population to see how their growth rate affects their population in the future. After researching the animal’s growth rate and carrying capacity, the information was inserted into a coded program that will graph a model to represent their population growth rate. Using the Matlab program, and using a code that is listed on the board, the program will then create a graph which will show different types of slopes. Data from the experiment shows that the gray wolves have a J-curve, while the moose S-curve (further explanation available on board). Some limitations encountered were the slopes didn’t turn out as planned; the graph type could then have to be changed to look more correct. In conclusion, the gray wolves are reproducing at a faster rate and will most likely go over their carrying capacity (how much the area they live in can carry). Once that happens their population will start to drop and go back to normal. The moose are reproducing at a slower rate than the wolves, so they will likely go up in population then start to level out with the carrying capacity numbers. With this information, predicting the animal’s population in the future will become more useful and we will understand how we can help.


Ms Of Ms: An Investigation Of The Cerebrospinal Fluid Proteome Of Multiple Sclerosis Patients Using Bruker Ma Xis Ii Etd Mass Spectrometry

MEDICINE & HEALTH SCIENCES

Multiple Sclerosis is a neurodegenerative disease where the immune system attacks the myelin sheath of the CNS neurons. Due to the unpredictable nature of immune system, symptoms vary vastly from person to person which leads to ineffective and unstable diagnostic tools. Those who are diagnosed in later stages of MS potentially suffer years of irrevocable neurological damage. This study aims to find a protein biomarker that would serve as a method of diagnosis. By obtaining cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with MS and those who have no sign of illness, proteins that were specific to the studied MS patients were obtained and analyzed by Bruker maXis II ETD Mass Spectrometer coupled with Exigent NanoLC 400. Proteins that were not found in the CSF of MS patients were also analyzed. Sample preparation included allocation and then gel electrophoresis was performed. After pre-mass spectrometry preparations, such as destaining and trypsin digestion, each individual band was analyzed for proteins in both MS and normal patients. This technique consisted of a novel approach to handling and analyzing the data obtained and lead to the discovery of the Vitamin D binding protein in the MS patients studied. Small changes in the proteome make a magnified impact not only in the realm of diagnosis, but also in the study of macromolecules and their relation to medicine. This research project created a fundamental foundation for future research on neurological conditions as these novel techniques can be used to investigate other conditions.


How Does Lung Capacity Affect A Cyclist's Endurance?

MEDICINE & HEALTH SCIENCES

How does lung capacity affect a cyclist's endurance?


What Is The Most Effective Pre Race Energizer For Me As A Swimmer?

MEDICINE & HEALTH SCIENCES

From my research I have hypothesized that the energizer that is most effective in a one hundred yard freestyle is one
with high glucose, in this case gummy bears. I believe this because energizers with high glucose flow into
the bloodstream rapidly giving the swimmer a rush of energy. My independent variable is the source of energy,
in other words the energizers. The dependent variable is the swimmer’s time in the race. The outcome of this
experiment will depend on which energizer has helped to improve the most time from the control test.

The test subject should get at least nine hours of sleep. They should continually take their heart rate.
After eating the same breakfast each time, the test subject should eat or drink the energizer. Finally, after a good
warm up the swimmer should swim a one hundred yard freestyle as fast as they can. In my experiment the results
showed that the orange led to the fastest racing time. The slowest race time was with the oatmeal, which
has a medium amount of glucose.

My hypothesis that the most effective energizer in a one hundred yard freestyle is one with high glucose, or
gummy bears, was proved incorrect. Testing the five chosen energizers proved that the orange slices led
towards the fastest time. This shows that energizers with low glucose are the best for shorter events such as the
one hundred yard freestyle.


Insomnia No More

MEDICINE & HEALTH SCIENCES

Today, many people are affected with the disability to sleep; insomnia. Many consumers benefit from taking the sleep medicine that contains the most effective active ingredient. Therefore, this experiment will examine the heart rate of daphnia based on different brands of sleeping medicine, and thus find different types of chemical ingredients that aid sleep the most. After researching chemical ingredients, we hypothesized that Zzzsleep would cause the heart rate of daphnia to decrease because it contains Diphenhydramine, of which its prominent side effect is drowsiness.
The medicine we used was Zzzsleep, Zyrtec, MidNite, Unisom SleepTabs, and Kirkland Signature’s sleep aid, which contained Diphehydramine, Doxylamine succinate, Melatonin, chamomile, and Cetrizine hydrochloride. We tested each of these drugs (independent variable) on the daphnia by diluting each drug to a 1:4 ratio with water, then we placed the daphnia into the solution and counted their heartbeats (dependant variable) under a microscope. After we did this, we compared the results to a daphnias original heartbeat without the medicine (control variable).
The experiment results supported our hypothesis and showed that 1) Diphenhydramine has the most significant and positive effect on decreasing the heart rate and is thus the most effective short-term insomnia treatment. 2) A mixture of melatonin and herbs and Doxylamine succinate have similar effects on decreasing the heartbeat and 3) Though Cetrizine hydrochloride was the third most effective on decreasing the heartbeat, the side effect of impairing thinking and reaction may have affected the data, and is thus not as the result shows.


How Do Personal Electronic Devices Affect Sleep Patterns?

MEDICINE & HEALTH SCIENCES

How Do Personal Electronic Devices Affect Sleep Patterns?


Tooth Decay Experiment

MEDICINE & HEALTH SCIENCES

For our experiment we tested how teeth decay. We measured the weight of each tooth in grams before and after each test measuring the weight difference. We used five different drinks, Monster Energy Drink, Coca Cola, Gatorade, Coffee and water as our control group.


Which Over The Counter Acne Medication Can Zap That Zit?

MEDICINE & HEALTH SCIENCES

Everybody has gotten acne at one point or another in their lifetime. Millions of people are affected by acne worldwide both physically and mentally. People of all ages are prone to acne, especially teens. Because of this, I wanted to find the best acne medication out there to help those struggling with acne.


Volleyball Serving Accuracy

MEDICINE & HEALTH SCIENCES

The purpose of this experiment was to see which position of a volleyball court is most accurate when using two different serving techniques - overhand and underhand serving. With all right hand servers.The hypothesis states that if where a subject serves from affects their accuracy, then having them serve from the middle of the court will improve their accuracy, since the target will be aligned with the middle of the court. The experiment was run by having one of the four subjects stand in three different positions, behind the serve line, then had the subject perform two different serve techniques in each spot. As the ball came over the net, the place it landed was marked, and at the end of the experiment the marks were recorded. They were averaged to which position and which serving technique was most accurate. The data shown both supports and opposes the hypothesis. With the overhand, left position, the accuracy was increased, whilst the underhand, middle position, also increased the accuracy. The data supported the hypothesis with the underhand, middle position having better accuracy, but opposed the hypothesis slightly with the overhand, left position having better accuracy. This can be applied to real life by using this method to help fix serving errors in future volleyball games.


Sleep Deprivation

MEDICINE & HEALTH SCIENCES

I researched this topic because I was curious about sleeping habits, concerned for myself and my peers, and because I love testing people. I used nineteen students and a twenty-six question survey for my purposes. The experiment was very short; the hardest part was thinking of relevant questions to ask them. The results of my experiment were satisfactory, but, in a way, they were also worrisome. I am more concerned than ever for myself and my peers now that I have seen what sleep deprivation can do. The participants helped prove my point that there is too much homework, which causes insane levels of stress and poses a threat to health. It also interferes with our personal lives in more ways than one. Unless we do something about this, our only option is to pace ourselves when it comes to doing the work.


The Effects Of Vitamin C On Melanoma

MEDICINE & HEALTH SCIENCES

Approximately 10, 000 people die every year from melanoma in America. Melanoma is not the most common skin cancer, with only 70,000 cases per year, however it causes the most deaths with approximately 10,000 Americans dying from melanoma-related causes per year. Skin cancer is caused by the mutation of DNA in skin cells, or melanocytes. There are natural proteins that are found in our body to protect us from DNA mutations, but they can become disabled or mutated due to UVA and UVB light-rays from the sun. Once this happens, the melanoma will usually spread to the lymph nodes and then either to the lungs or brain. By this stage, it is considered terminal, and the patient will usually only have a couple months to live. Many people have helped to beat these odds, and with the advancing technology used by cancer scientists, scientists have been able to prolong the lives of patients and prevent melanoma from affecting others. One method that has been considered is an orally supplemented antioxidant vitamin given to cancer patients throughout the treatment. It is thought that this will reduce oxidative stress—which has been known to cause cancer—in spite of this belief; it is a very controversial issue due to mixed results. Research has shown that vitamins increase the growth rate of melanoma while other studies have given conflicting results. In order to increase the understanding about melanoma and antioxidants an experiment was performed, where two types of cell lines, B16 and C3, derived from mice were tested. The C3 line is an immortal mouse melanocyte cell line; therefore, the cell is expected to not undergo tumor genesis. This represents the control aspect of the experiment in order to insure for accurate results. The second cell line is a malignant melanoma labeled B16. B16 is the malignant melanoma, and will undergo tumor genesis. Both cell lines will be administered with physiological amounts of ascorbic acid for 15 days. They will be cultured in an assay that is normally used for mammalian cells called soft agar assay. At the end of 15 days, the number of colonies was recorded by hand and with imaging software; cells were stained with crystal violet and scanned with ImageJ. The hypothesis of this experiment is, if physiological amounts of ascorbic acid are administered to the melanoma and melanocytes, it will decrease the number of colonies in the treated melanoma cells and have no affect on the melanocytes. Results showed there was a significant difference between the treated and untreated melanoma cells with approximately a 200-colony decrease in the treated cells. This supports the hypothesis by showing that the ascorbic acid decreases the growth of melanoma when administered in physiological amounts. The data is noteworthy due to the great gap between the information. It was expected for the ascorbic acid to have a positive effect on the melanoma, but the data was unexpected in terms of the vast variance in numbers. This experiment has given a glimpse into the relationship between melanoma and ascorbic acid, with hopes of more experiments to come in the future.


What Is The Most Effective Sunscreen For Protecting The Skin?

MEDICINE & HEALTH SCIENCES

Hypothesis:
I hypothesize that octinoxate will protect the skin the best because it is absorbed by the skin, which helps for other ingredients in sunscreen to be absorbed. Since octinoxate does this to help the skin, it is the oldest and most common active sunscreen ingredient and it can also block the sun’s UV-B rays. It is an active ingredient that is very common in many sunscreen brands, such as Coppertone. Since these brands contain octinoxate, I believe it will be the most protective active ingredient in sunscreen.

Experimental Procedure:
1. Purchase materials
2. Place the UV beads inside the bags
3. Apply sunscreen and put in the tanning bed for chosen time
4. Control-plastic bag with no sunscreen
5. Test the UV protection of the sunscreens in a tanning bed and record the change in color of the beads
6. Test the UV protection of the sunscreens outside and record the change in color of the beads
7. Place UV beads in bags and lay on tray
8. Place the tray outside under the sun and record the change in color of the beads
Results:

The Banana Boat 100 sunscreen was found to be the most protective sunscreen because it has 100 SPF. The Banana Boat SPF 50 was the best of the 50s, which means they had some variation. Also, the Zinc Oxide was proven to be better than all the SPF 50s.

Conclusion:

I found that the SPF labels can be trusted, even though my hypothesis was not proven to be right. I learned which brand I should use next time I go to the beach or even just outside in the sun. I now know that I should use Banana Boat 100 if I want to be protected from the sun’s UV radiation.


Optogenetic Recording Of Cultured Trpv1 Cre/G Ca Mp6+ Drg Neurons To Study Muscle Fatigue And Pain

MEDICINE & HEALTH SCIENCES

TRPV1 is a receptor selectively expressed in a subclass of nociceptors that respond to capsaicin, proton and noxious heat. In the muscle, group III/IV sensory neurons were found synergistically evoked by a metabolite mix containing ATP, lactate and protons. The same metabolite mix, when tested in human subjects, synergistically evoked sensations of muscle fatigue and pain. To study the roles of TRPV1-expressing neurons in muscle fatigue and pain, we selectively introduced a green fluorescent protein (GFP) based calcium sensor (GCaMP6) into the TRPV1/Cre-expressing DRG neurons in the mouse. GCaMP6 is a fluorescent protein ultrasensitive to intracellular Ca2+. Once a neuron is activated, the Ca2+ influx activates the calcium sensor rendering the emission of fluorescence detectable by a special fluorescent microscope. We found that the fluorescence was bright enough for a real-time optogenetic recording. We detected the signals in 78.3% of all the DRG neurons, however, only 64.6% of them responded to capsaicin (200nM), comprising of 50.6% of total neurons. The fact that about one third of the TRPV1-expressing neurons were silent to capsaicin may suggest a lack of phosphorylation of the receptor at rest. We also confirmed that ~20% DRG neurons were activated by metabolites mix. Among them, more than 85.6% either were GFP-labeled or responded to capsaicin. The silent cells, however, were largely (87.8%) irresponsive to metabolites. Our future plan is to study the molecular diversity of the GCaMP6+ neurons, their terminal pattern in the muscles, and their response to metabolites microinjected inside of the muscle.


Preclinical Evaluation Of Cannabidiol For Seizures And Comorbidities

MEDICINE & HEALTH SCIENCES

Cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychoactive component of the Cannabis plant, has been shown to be a “multi-target” therapeutic drug, especially in regards to antiseizure efficacies. In a previous study, the median effective dose (ED50) of CBD was shown to be 180.72 mg/kg. Since the original acute studies were conducted in CF#1 mice and future chronic studies require the use of C57BL6/J mice (a different strain and vendor), it is essential to characterize the efficacy and safety of CBD in C57BL6/J mice. The 6Hz partial seizure model is used in the Anticonvulsant Drug Development (ADD) Program and throughout the world to identify and characterize investigational antiseizure drugs (ASDs). This model has a unique pharmacological profile characterized by pharmacoresistant seizures at higher currents. Before CBD, only two other clinical ASDs (levetiracetam and valproic acid) were proven to be effective in the 6Hz (44mA) model. Along with CBD’s effectiveness in preventing seizures, its effect on motor and cognitive function will also need to be tested using the novel object recognition test. The goal of this study is to determine CBD’s efficacy and safety in C57BL6/J mice and determine if it is cognitive sparing at the chronically effective 180.72 mg/kg dose.


The Effect Of Barometric Pressure On The Rate Of Births By Spontaneous Labor

MEDICINE & HEALTH SCIENCES

Even though there have been great advances in maternal and fetal health we still do not know what triggers labor. There are many wives' tales among laypeople and the medical community. One of the most common theories is that a storm can trigger labor.There has been some research done into this topic, but the results have fallen on both sides. To test this theory I decided to compare the number of births by spontaneous labor that occurred on a given day compared to the barometric pressure and the change in barometric pressure that occurred. I hypothesized that a large change in either direction will increase the number of births that occur. Once obtaining the number of births for each day and the pressure I did a number of statistical comparisons of my data. Through this study I found that an above average change overnight change in barometric pressure caused a greater number of births.


Effects Of Radiation And Ultra Violet Light On Development Of Zebra Fish Embryos

MEDICINE & HEALTH SCIENCES

The effects that radiation and Ultraviolet light leave on zebra fish embryos. Effects on Zebra fish with and without XRCC5.


Antioxidants

MEDICINE & HEALTH SCIENCES

Free radicals naturally occur in our bodies, and help with cellular process, but in high concentration they can damage cells causing many diseases. To completely neutralize free radicals we have to eat foods that contain Vitamins C, A, E, K, and Folate, which have antioxidant properties. These are in fruits and vegetables. Because of the health benefits, many companies advertise antioxidants in their products, but not always honestly. Another common question is; what happens to the antioxidants when we cook or pasteurize the food?
The three questions I tested were: (1) What type of food contains the most effective antioxidant? (2) What happens if we cook or pasteurize the food? (3)Do businesses falsely advertise about antioxidants? My hypotheses are that foods with a high percentage of vitamins will be the most effective antioxidant, that cooking and pasteurizing food will harm the antioxidants, and that businesses sometimes do falsely advertise.
In order to test my hypotheses I juiced raw foods containing the key vitamins and then cooked the rest of the juices. I also used pasteurized grape juice and almond milk, as well as two different drinks that specifically advertised antioxidants. I dipped potato slices halfway into 30 mL of each juice and laid it on a paper towel. The undipped side of each potato slice acted as a control. If the juices contain antioxidants, then the dipped side should brown less than the undipped side. Every 30 minutes I recorded my observations. I uploaded the photos into Photoshop, and I averaged the red, blue, and green intensities of the dipped and undipped sides of the potato (Table 1 and Figure 4).
The results of my experiments showed that foods high in Vitamins K and C are the most effective antioxidants for example the raw grapes, but are far less effective if cooked or pasteurized. Also, one of the products advertising antioxidants did quite well (the Cranberry Water), while the other (Green Tea) did very poorly. In conclusion, the most reliable way to get antioxidants is to eat a variety of raw fruits and vegetables.


Which Whitening Toothpaste Whitens The Most?

MEDICINE & HEALTH SCIENCES

I wanted to find out which whitening toothpastes whitens the most on coke stained chicken bones.


Changes In The Protein Expression Of The Nlrp3 Inflammatory Marker During Seizure Development In Mice

MEDICINE & HEALTH SCIENCES

NLRP3 Inflammasome is a part of a multisystem protein complex which when activated generates proinflammatory cytokines triggering an immune response (Sutterwala, 2014). Currently, there is no cure for the neurological disease epilepsy. Though there are ongoing treatments that work for some patients, there is no working drug available for patients who suffer from epilepsy due to a viral infection. This project focused on the mouse pathogen Theiler's Murine Encephalomyelitis Virus (TMEV) which was injected into a specific strain of C57 five to seven week old male mice.
In this study, the ketone drug beta-hydroxybutyrate seemed to be the most profitable drug which mimics high protein, low carb diets as some epileptic patients have responded well to these diets. However the subjects experienced an adverse reaction to the drug, and dispensing of the drug was discontinued after one dosage.
BCA protein assays were run to determine the absorbance rate of the samples in accordance with the standard BSA concentration. Following the testing of the absorbance, data was collected, and Western Blots were prepared for and executed.
The Western Blot’s purpose was to detect the highly elevated expression of the NLRP3 Inflammasome protein in the TMEV infected mice. In order to optimize results, varying the antibody concentration, the protein concentration, and the blocking solution will allow for the addressing of variables during the procedure.


Can Laughter Improve Your Health?

MEDICINE & HEALTH SCIENCES

I think that laughter can improve your health. Making people laugh shows that 67% of the people either maintained or improved their vital signs.


How Do Gmo's Affect Larval Death Rate Of Fruit Flies

MEDICINE & HEALTH SCIENCES

Introduction
Genetically modified organisms (GMO) have been a controversial topic for many years. People are currently debating whether GMO’s are safe or harmful to human health. Although studies have shown that GMO’s are safe, people have misconceptions which leads to negative views about GMO’s. People claim that consuming GMO’s can potentially cause cancer and infertility but not enough research has been done to prove the claims to be accurate(Cordeiro, 2014). People are also concerned that the government doesn’t require companies to label foods as GMO’s because of the fear that GMO’s will cause long term effects to health. There are also misunderstandings with how crops are genetically modified and the characteristics an organism displays after modification. People don’t understand that scientist take a specific gene out of an organism and insert it into another to lessen or amplify a specific gene in an organism(Blancke, 2015).
Although there are multiple claims that GMO’s can have a negative impact on health, there have been many studies that prove GMO’s to be safe and beneficial in many situations. With the help of GMO’s, farmers have been able to increase crop yield with Bt crops. They are known to kill pest that would decrease crop yield by 40% due to consumption and plant diseases. In developing countries, more than 140 million pre-school kids and 7 million pregnant women suffer from vitamin A deficiency. With the help of scientist, rice was genetically modified to carry betacarotene that later transforms into vitamin A once consumed. Scientist created what is known as “golden rice” to help people consume vitamin A to help combat vitamin A deficiency (Charles, 2013). The purpose of this study is to test if GMO’s are harmful to consume. If we see that GMO’s had an effect on larval death rate of fruit flies, than we can assume that they are potentially dangerous for people to consume.

Question/Hypothesis
Question: How do GMO foods affect larval death rate of different fruit fly species?
Hypothesis: I believe there will be no drastic changes in the number of progeny fruit flies produce whether raised on GMO or non-GMO food. I think this because we have been consuming GMO’s for years and there has been no evidence to suggest adverse effects. There is minimal evidence that proves GMOs to have a negative effect on health and many scientist have been able to prove that it is safe for consumption. Studies that investigated livestock fed both non-GMO and GMO foods did not reveal anything unusual concerning health, including tumors or infertility (Entine, 2014).
Procedure
Grow the fruit fly stock for all 3 fruit fly species (Melanogaster, Erecta, and pseudoobscura)
Make 2 different types of foods using GMO and non-GMO cornmeal
Raise the three species on each food ( trials of each species fed on each specific food)
Flip fruit flies once every week
Flip each vial before progeny emerges to avoid having progeny mating with adults
Count the number of progeny in each vial to see if there is any differences in the progeny count when fed different foods
Compare male and female population size
Compare the number of progeny in each trial to see if there are any significant decreases or increases in progeny count


What Is The Correlation Between The Presence Of A Snp, Caffeine Metabolism, And Ancestry?

MEDICINE & HEALTH SCIENCES

What is the correlation between the presence of a SNP, caffeine metabolism, and ancestry? I believe that eastern Europe will have the most people as heterozygous for the SNP. I believe this because eastern Europe is often known for coffee. To get data I will get 21 subjects to swish water around in their mouths for one minute and spit it out. I will then extract DNA from these samples. Using spectrophotometry I will see the concentration of DNA in the supernatant. I will then use qPCR to see if each sample is heterozygous for SNP or homozygous for wild type. After this I will examine the questionnaires and correlate them to the subjects’ DNA. Then I will correlate their DNA to where their ancestors are from.

There were only a few outliers in my project but for the most part everyone drinks as much as their DNA says they should be drinking. My hypothesis was proven correct because the subjects from eastern europe were heterozygous for SNP. I was also correct about families being consistent throughout generations. Although some of one family’s subjects didn’t work I was able to predict their results from their questionnaires and from their grandparents’ and parents’ DNA. After looking at the results of my experiment I began to wonder about why some people thought they were slow metabolizers but they were actually fast or vice versa. I also wondered as to the results of the rest of the family member’s DNA and how it would correlate to the rest of the members.

If I were to do this experiment again I would explain to my subjects to chew lightly on their cheeks while swishing the water around in their mouth. This would have suspended more cells in the spit and I would’ve been able to get more DNA which would’ve made the qPCR work for more samples and it would be more accurate. I would also modify my questionnaire to make it say “How many cups of caffeine do you consume on a daily basis?” This would make it easier for me to get accurate answers from my subjects because many of them did not drink coffee but they drank tea. I also would get more families with generations because it is interesting to see the genes passed down. I would also like to have more subjects overall.


How Does Temperature Affect Your Sleep?

MEDICINE & HEALTH SCIENCES

How does temperature affect your sleep quality? I hypothesized that a cooler room temperature would be more beneficial for my sleep. To support my hypothesis, I spoke with Shelley Robinson, a registered polysomnographic technologist at the Logan Regional Hospital. She said that most of her sleep study patients prefer a cooler room temperature than the one originally set by the hospital. This indicates that these patients have naturally found that a cold environment is more beneficial for their sleep. My hypothesis was also supported by an article in the Wall Street Journal that said, “The core body temperature must cool down by about two to three degrees before the brain can make the switch to sleep.” These pieces of evidence lead me to believe that a cooler room temperature will be more beneficial for sleep.
To test my hypothesis, I used a Vernier Lab Quest to track temperature and a Fitbit to measure my sleep. I slept for four nights in a controlled environment which was the normal temperature of my room, this was about 66 degrees Fahrenheit(F). Then, I opened my window and sleep for four nights with a cooler temperature of around 61 degrees F. Finally, I slept for four nights in a heated room using a space heater, which gave me the average temperature of 76 degrees F.
After overlaying both sources and averaging the data, I did support my hypothesis. In the cooler environment, my sleep was 24% more restful than in my controlled room. My sleep in the warmer temperature also had a decrease in restless minutes per hour, but this was only a 6% difference and I did not think it was as significant. There are many other possibilities for future study because sleep is effected by lots of variables, so I could test again by changing my bedding or turning on the fan.


The Spread Of Disease

MEDICINE & HEALTH SCIENCES

The purpose of this experiment is to see how changing the number of exchanges in a disease simulation affects the number of people infected. To set up this experiment, I filled 39 numbered cups with water and one with NaOH. Next, I gave them to the class (29 people), then had them exchange liquids X times, recording who they exchanged with. Finally, I used pH indicator to check for the disease in each cup and recorded the results. I did the experiment twice, once with three exchanges, and once with six exchanges. There was a significant difference in the numbers of people infected. Only eight people were infected in the first experiment, but 26 people were infected in the second. This shows that when the number of exchanges increases, the number of people infected increases dramatically.


Double Edged Sword On Embryos

MEDICINE & HEALTH SCIENCES

Metals with a density at least five times greater than water are termed heavy metals. They are found in air, soil and food. They are double-edged swords. They are essential trace elements for humans, animals and plants, deficiency of heavy metals such as copper and zinc will cause developmental and health problems. However, heavy metals are very toxic. Over exposure to heavy metals can lead to serious health problems. Many things such as vehicle emissions and mining wastes can cause heavy metal pollution in the environment. I am very interested in whether heavy metal pollution in water may be harmful to animal embryo development. To this end, I investigated the developmental process of Xenopus embryos in water containing various amount of Copper and Zinc, respectively. Both of them can lead to embryo death and tadpole deformities even at very low concentrations (0.05 ppm of Copper). Copper is more toxic than Zinc. The tadpoles exposed to Zinc are smaller and mostly inactive, which suggests their development is delayed and they are sick. I believe that heavy metal pollution occurring in the air, soil and wastes will result in water pollution, which will be harmful to all animals and plants. My experiment suggests that over exposure to Copper and Zinc is very harmful to embryos. In addition, Xenopus embryo is a very good model to test heavy metal toxic effects on embryos. It is simple, fast and sensitive.


Cannabidiol (Cbd) Is An Effective Anti Seizure Drug; But Is It Safe? The Cognitive Effects Of Cannabidiol In C57 Bi/6 Mice

MEDICINE & HEALTH SCIENCES

Cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychotropic component of Cannabis sativa, has garnered significant interest as a “multi-target” therapeutic drug. Although CBD may be a promising new anti-seizure drug, its side effect profile remains unknown. In particular, its effects on cognition remains to be evaluated. The goal of this study was to evaluate the cognitive side effects of CBD, focusing on learning and memory. This was done with two different experiments; an in-vitro experiment modeling the experience dependent synaptic plasticity believed to occur when memories are being formed (long term potentiation: LTP), and an in-vivo experiment modeling episodic short term memory (novel object recognition: NOR). The in-vitro experiment concluded with a strong trend towards CBD decreasing hippocampal synaptic plasticity; which would support the hypothesis. However, the difference is not yet significant due to low sample size. In addition, 10 micrometers of CBD significantly attenuates basal synaptic transmission. The behavioral consequences of this finding is unknown. The in-vivo experiment concluded that 180.72 mg/kg CBD decreases locomotion; which may suggest that this dose of CBD causes sedation. In addition, the control C57Bl/6 mice significantly recognized novel objects in the NOR task. However, mice injected with either vehicle or CBD did not perform the task. This may be due to stress from being injected or to the components of the vehicle.


Multiple Sclerosis Patients Feeling Frozen?

MEDICINE & HEALTH SCIENCES

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an often disabling disease that attacks the central nervous system, interrupting the flow of information between the brain and the body. MS occurs when your immune system attacks a fatty material called myelin, which wraps around your nerve fibers to protect them. Without this outer shell, your nerves become damaged. MS often causes numbness in the limbs, tingling, weakness, fatigue and spasticity.

Spasticity, a muscle control disorder, is one of the most common symptoms of MS. It is characterized by muscle stiffness, spasms, sudden muscle contractions or a sensation of feeling "frozen".

Sixteen years ago, my aunt was diagnosed with Multiple Sclerosis. Through the years, I have watched the disease progress and noticed that her ability to walk and move is compromised in extreme temperatures. It made me curious if this was the case with all MS patients! After consulting with a rehabilitation doctor at the University of Utah, I decided it would be interesting to experiment with spasticity in MS patients in cold and warm temperatures.

Through this experiment, I would like to recruit MS patients to walk a distance of 30 feet inside at room temperature and outside in cold temperatures and compare my results. I would also have a control group of non-MS patients and have them walk the same distance. Then compare the effects of spasticity in MS patients with the control group. I hope that through my research, I will be able to provide MS patients and the medical community with an increased awareness of how cold affects spasticity in MS patients.


How Does The Air Pollution In Salt Lake City Affect The Lung Capacity Of Asthmatics

MEDICINE & HEALTH SCIENCES

For my science fair project I looked at how the air pollution in Salt Lake City affected the lung capacity of asthmatics. I tested two groups of people: one with asthma and one without. I tested once in a period of good air quality and a second time in a period of poor air quality. I used a spirometer and a Vernier Lab Quest to see the lung volume on my test subjects. The two values of spirometry that I tested were peak flow and forced expiratory volume. I mainly looked at the values for the asthmatics and the non-asthmatics were my experimental controls. I hypothesized that both groups would be affected by the air pollution, and that the peak flow and forced expiratory volumes for both groups would be affected. I hypothesized that the initial lung capacity of both groups will decrease after exposure to the air pollution. But, I also hypothesized that the initial lung capacity of asthmatics would decrease more than the initial lung capacity of non-asthmatics. To see this change in lung volume, I looked at the percent change in both peak flow and forced expiratory volume for both groups of test subjects. In conclusion my hypothesis was proven correct in that the percent change for the asthmatics in the values was higher than the percent change for the non-asthmatics.


Exploring The Differences Between Rodent/Mouse Trpm8 And Human Trpm8

MEDICINE & HEALTH SCIENCES

Air Pollution is known to have harmful effects on the respiratory system, however the exact processes and mechanisms linking the two are not fully understood. Research has been focused in on the Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channel superfamily of proteins as a possible link between the two. TRP Melastatin-8 (TRPM8) is expressed in the respiratory tract in humans, mice, and rats. Since experimentation on humans is often unethical, research for a suitable and appropriate model is needed to test TRPM8 channels. Using calcium assays, average responses to known agonists for mTRPM8, hTRPM8, and rTRPM8 will be recorded and analyzed to determine similarity. Results showed similar responses for known and pollutant agonists for human and mouse constructs, however in rats a diminished response to pollutant agonists was seen. Mice have been suggested and supported through the results, to be a suitable and appropriate model for human responses to pollutant and known agonists for TRPM8, allowing for further research into the channels and respiratory diseases using easy to study mouse models. Further research will be performed on rat TRPM8 to identify potential binding sites for pollutant agonists involving the activation of TRPM8.


Texting While Walking Dangerous Multitasking

MEDICINE & HEALTH SCIENCES

This project tested texting while walking. How texting and walking affects coordination and balance between different grades and genders. This project will help people make smart decisions while using phones while walking, it will also help inform people about how much balance and coordination different types of people (male female younger older) have. Two hypothesize were given for this project one saying older subjects will have better balance because they've had longer to develop their gross motor skills, that people would do worse while texting. The other said that the younger subjects would do better because there are studies showing evidence of that. To test this project a variety of subjects were given a course to walk through, once while texting, once while not. The variables tested were sex grade and whether they were texting or not. We found that the older the subject the better the coordination and everyone did worse if they were texting and walking simultaneously. We found that it is dangerous and more likely to be hurt if you text while walking for the future this study could use touch ups including trying to eliminate detrimental variables like environment and focus.


Spice It Up!

MEDICINE & HEALTH SCIENCES

Leukemia is a fatal kind of cancer occurring in a person’s white blood cells. Leukemia still threatens so many people and it took about 60,140 lives last year. The objective of this project is to discover a way to potentially reduce leukemia cell growth. The cell line tested was CEM, which is an acute leukemia line derived from a patient with leukemia. Some of the materials needed to complete this experiment consist of Sigma-Aldrich Curcumin powder (Curcumin being the active ingredient of an Indian spice called turmeric), RPMI media, Flasks, 10ml pipettes, pipette tips, 0.4 micron sterile filter, sterile Falcon test tubes, leukemia cells (CEM line), Envision plate reader, Cell Titer Glo, Scale, and water bath. It was hypothesized that using 0.5, 2.5, 5, 10, 25, 50 and 70 uM (micromolars) of Curcumin added in increments of 24 hours, 48 hours, and 72 hours would decrease the cell’s growth with higher concentrations working more effectively because it has been tested that turmeric decreases leukemia cell growth. The results showed that the higher concentrations of Curcumin decreased the growth of leukemia cells. The 70 uM dosage of Curcumin after 72 hours was the most effective in decreasing growth of the cells. Initial research suggested that higher concentrations of drugs lead to a decreases in cell growth, which is proven again in this experiment.


Testing How The Brain Reacts To Somatosensation.

MEDICINE & HEALTH SCIENCES

I chose to do this experiment because one day I was thinking, which brain is more sensitive, an adult brain or a child brain. In order to test this I figured out how sensitive somatosensation is in the brain of childs and adults. To test the somatosensation I used a caliper, and wooden sticks to determine the distance between two nerves in each of the regions. At the end I figure out that a child's brain is more sensitive than an adult brain.


Poisonous Produce

MEDICINE & HEALTH SCIENCES

Our project tests the effects of pesticides on water daphnia. We looked at the heart and respiration rate depending on how long the daphnia were exposed to the affected fruit. We found that they were severely affected by the pesticides. We also looked at the difference between organic and non-organic grapes and the effects on the daphnia.


Heat Vs. Static Stretching

MEDICINE & HEALTH SCIENCES

Athletic injuries are common in the adult population. It is generally assumed that a warm up, by increasing tissue temperature, will increase tissue distensability and reduce the incidence of injury. This study compares whether heat or static stretching is most effective at increasing hamstring flexibility.


Music Streaming As A Medical Treatment For Mental Disorders

MEDICINE & HEALTH SCIENCES

Depression, bipolar disorder, and anxiety are all mental disorders which can lead to a lower quality of life in patients, but the emotions inflicted by these disorders can be modulated using music. This music can be delivered through music streaming services, which contain a large variety of songs. To test the user-friendliness and availability of mood categories for these services, 11 were chosen and tested to see which would be most useful for clinical treatment. To analyze the components of music which modulate emotions the most, songs were selected and categorized based on mood. Based on these tests, it was concluded that Spotify, Musicovery, and Aupeo scored the highest. The components of music which affected mood most were tempo and volume of the piece, as well as the type of key and pitch the notes are played. Based on these, work can begin on creating a new mobile device to play music for patient and react based on the current emotion. This requires FDA approval, as well as new developments in technologies in order to create a new adjunct therapy for the treatment of depression, anxiety, and bipolar disorder.


Beat That!

MEDICINE & HEALTH SCIENCES

For our project, we wanted to see if your heart rate while sitting in an XD theater would be the same as walking for exercise. We found out that how easily you get scared affects your heart rate. Our data supported our hypothesis. Although watching something scary could work to make your heart stronger we would recommend actually exercising compared to it. When you exercise you are working your heart and your leg muscles to make them stronger which is better for your whole body not just your heart. Exercise strengthens muscles, increases endurance, and helps many systems in your body. Just having your heart rate increase doesn’t necessarily mean you are getting healthier.


What Is The Optimal Cutting Board Surface To Avoid Gluten Cross Contamination In Food Preparation?

MEDICINE & HEALTH SCIENCES

People diagnosed with celiac disease often have difficulty finding foods that are gluten-free and safe to eat. I researched which cutting board surface best avoided gluten cross-contamination in food preparation. I hypothesized that apples cut on cutting boards where gluten-containing foods had been cut would test very high positive for gluten on a plastic cutting board, high positive on a sheesham wood cutting board, and positive on a bamboo cutting board. After the cutting boards are washed, I believed that apples cut on plastic would test high positive, apples cut on sheesham would test positive, and apples cut on bamboo would test negative for gluten. I believed this because research showed that plastic cutting boards are easy to scar with knife cuts, making them much less durable than wood cutting boards. Although wood cutting boards are stronger than plastic cutting boards, they are still less durable than bamboo cutting boards.
For my experiment, I cut whole wheat bread on plastic, sheesham, and bamboo cutting boards, and then cut apples on the same surfaces. I used the EZ Gluten Test Kit to test for gluten on the apples. I then washed each surface, cut apples on the washed surfaces, and tested for gluten on the apples. I completed these steps on three sections of each cutting board to create three trials.
My results showed that apples cut on unwashed plastic and bamboo cutting boards tested positive for gluten in all trials. The apples cut on sheesham tested positive in two of three trials. Apples cut on the washed plastic cutting board tested positive for gluten in two out of three trials. The apples tested negative in all other trials for all cutting boards. I learned that there is a high risk of cross-contamination on all cutting boards before they are washed. There a minimal risk of cross-contamination on washed bamboo and sheesham wood cutting boards, but a greater risk of cross-contamination on the plastic cutting board.


Modeling Traffic Flow Using Advanced Mathematics

PHYSICS, ASTRONOMY & MATH

Advanced mathematical models were established as a continued research on the relation between car spacing and the maximum number of cars that can pass during a green light period. A scenario that a car moves at an accelerated speed instead of a constant average speed in the range of a defined safe distance D and calculus method were used to derive the math models. A Python[2] computer program was created for conducting numerical experiments and data analysis. A comparison was made between the advanced and simple math methods. The conclusion was drawn from the data analysis that the number of cars that pass through the intersection will increase as the distance (spacing) between vehicles increases in a valid range during a green light period for both advanced math and simple math methods.


How Sound Waves Travel Through Different States Of Matter.

PHYSICS, ASTRONOMY & MATH

We decided to do our project on how sound waves travel through different states of matter. The reason we decided on this project was because we wanted to explore the different variables of sound waves. We did our experiment with a decibel meter, music, a plastic container, a plastic bag, and 3 states of matter. We had the matter in the plastic bag with music on the right side of the bag, and the decibel meter on the other. Then we turned on the music and found the decibel.


Physics In Figure Skating

PHYSICS, ASTRONOMY & MATH

Testing the effects of different body positions on a figure skater's speed.


Does Shape Matter

PHYSICS, ASTRONOMY & MATH

Does the shape of a weight bearing object matter? In this project we examine different shape and see if this effects their weight bearing capacity.


Wireless Fidelity Signal Attenuation Using Radio Reflective And Radio Dielectric Substances

PHYSICS, ASTRONOMY & MATH

Being aware of the effectiveness of the obstacles that block wireless signals can be useful can be useful in detecting your wireless range. The purpose was to investigate which materials block these signals most effectively. I covered the wireless router with different materials and then measured the signal strength. The carbon steel covering was the most effective. The experiment will contribute by identifying materials that could debilitate the performance of the wireless signal, which could be used to help stream different networks on the same band.


Where's That Confounded Bridge?: The Effect Of Bridge Placement On Excited Harmonics From A Stringed Instrument

PHYSICS, ASTRONOMY & MATH

Sound comes from the vibrations of air. Instruments are built to control these vibrations and produce the specific sounds that people identify as music. In string instruments, the strings are stretched across a piece of wood called the bridge, which connects the strings to the volume of a sound chamber. The purpose of the bridge is to transfer the vibration of the strings to the air inside of the sound chamber, which then resonates and amplifies the sound. This project explores how bridge placement on a sound chamber affects how the instrument sounds.
The hypothesis states that placing the bridge off a node in the sound chamber will result in more harmonics than placement on a node.
Nodes in a standing wave are points along the wave that never move from a fixed position. The vibration of the wave comes from the areas around the nodes, the most vibrations coming from the anti-node points on the wave. If the bridge is placed directly upon a node of the sound chamber, the vibrations that are transferred land on the node are less likely to excite the air molecules inside and will produce a muted sound. However, if the bridge is placed off a node, the transmitted vibrations are more likely to excite the air and produce a better sound.
To test the hypothesis, a basic instrument with a rectangular sound chamber, one string, and adjustable bridge was constructed out of wood. The scale length of the string was kept constant by moving an adjustable nut along the neck of the instrument in tandem with the bridge. The tuning of the string was kept at a constant frequency of A2 at 110 Hz. A measurement of the sound of the instrument is collected using a spectrum analyzer program and a microphone.
The frequency vs. amplitude data from the spectrum analyzer program were normalized to the maximum peak for comparison purposes. How “good” the sound of the instrument is was determined by how many harmonic peaks were visible on the normalized graphs.
The results showed that bridge placement on a higher order node resulted in more harmonics. The hypothesis is true, but was not broad enough to include the higher order nodes of the sound chamber. Placement of the bridge just off a node of the sound chamber results in more harmonics and better sound quality.


Using Machine Learning To Identify Asteroid Collisional Families

PHYSICS, ASTRONOMY & MATH

The mechanics of solar system formation and collisions that cause the orbits and placements of various solar system objects are not well understood. Throughout the history of the solar system, ejections from the solar system, collisions with other objects, and interactions with the gravitational forces of large objects have varied the orbits and properties of objects from their original orbits. To better understand the collisions and forces that shape the solar system as we know it today, astronomers and physicists seek to trace collisions, ejections and orbital interactions backwards through time.
In the investigation of the history of the solar system, groupings of objects with similar origins or orbits are particularly useful. In the last two decades, space objects that are very distant in their orbit, known as Trans-Neptunian Objects, have been identified and classified. Upon determination of their orbital elements and physical properties, it was noted that they had similarly aligned orbits, inclined abnormally above the normal plane of orbit in the solar system. This discovery prompted the hypothesis that there exists a ninth planet in the outer solar system, massive enough to align and maintain the orbits of these Trans-Neptunian objects. To better investigate the origins of these orbital alignments, it is important to find other categories of objects with similar histories. In this project, machine learning techniques were used to categorize and visualize asteroid groupings.


Catching Stardust

PHYSICS, ASTRONOMY & MATH

My project is inspired by NASA when they went on a mission on February 7, 1999 to collect comet particals. These are also known as "stardust." This project is like a simple replica of how maybe astronomers were able to capture some. Of course, the materials used in this project is not that advanced as the ones actually used. Furthermore, this project is really fun and pretty much anyone can test it out.


Traffic Is Like Sheep.

PHYSICS, ASTRONOMY & MATH

A study of the effects of drivers' speeds on traffic flow. My results have concluded that Outliers in speed will most likely increase or decrease the speed of traffic flow; 2) A faster preceding vehicle speed will most likely result in a faster traffic flow; 3) Normal preceding vehicle speed will result in the same speed for vehicles that follow; 4) Driver speeds are affected by the preceding vehicle’s speed and the speed limit; 5) Faster driver speeds will, to an extent, increase traffic flow.


How Does Temperature Affect Stringed Instruments

PHYSICS, ASTRONOMY & MATH

My project is about how temperature affects stringed instruments. Many different things affect the change in pitch such as temperature, thermal expansion, and material. Thermal expansion is a combination of both temperature and material. Basically, based on the change in temperature, the material will change in a certain way. The three materials that were used in this experiment were wood, steel, and nylon. The thermal expansion coefficient of wood is 1.7. The coefficient of steel is 6.7. Lastly, the coefficient of nylon is 40. To test this, I took a ukulele and a guitar and then proceeded to tune them in my warm room, or my cold room taking and recording the temperature of the room where I tuned them. I then moved them to the opposite temperature room of where I tuned them and let them sit in that room for an hour to equilibrate. After an hour, I tuned them by using my Snark tuner which measures in a clock-like fashion. To simplify, if the bar on the snark tuner is straight up, like at the top of every hour on a clock, your instrument is in tune. Each bar to the left or right represents, five cents. A cent is a measurement of sound that is equal to one two-hundredth of a note. If the bar on the Snark tuner was displayed as three bars to the left, then I would record that as negative three. If the Snark displayed a bar that was two bars to the right of the correct tune, then I would record that as positive two. I repeated this going from a warm environment to a cold environment and from a cold environment to a warm environment. The results for my experiment were very confusing especially with ukulele because the C string on the ukulele acted in an opposite way than expected. The ukulele also had a larger change in pitch in comparison to the guitar, which is most likely due to the fact that the ukulele uses nylon strings, which have a much larger thermal expansion coefficient than guitar strings, which are made out of steel. One fault I found was that I found that sometimes my hands were warming up the strings and thus giving it a different change in pitch. If I did this experiment again, I would like to let both of the instruments sit in the room that is changing their pitch for a longer period of time to let them equilibrate and to get a more exact result. I would like to do this especially with guitar because it's pitch did not change as much as expected. Overall, this experiment was very fun and I learned many different things and I got to use the instruments that I loved.


Rocket

PHYSICS, ASTRONOMY & MATH

How the shape of a nose cone of the rocket affects the rocket performance of height.


Going The Distance

PHYSICS, ASTRONOMY & MATH

Abstract

a) Project Overview - Will a ball launched at higher altitudes travel farther than at lower altitudes? The point of my project was to determine if launching a tennis ball at high altitude, Draper, Utah (4,471 ft), would result in it traveling farther than in Las Vegas, Nevada, an altitude of 2,007 ft, and San Diego, California, an altitude of 374 ft.

b) Hypothesis - If I launch a tennis ball at a higher altitude, then it will travel farther in distance because the air pressure and air density are less at a higher altitude which causes less drag force on the ball.

c) Procedure - I selected a specific flat open field in Draper, Las Vegas, and San Diego that were used throughout data collection. After letting the digital thermometer acclimatize, air was pumped into the ball launcher through the car valve using a battery-operated power inflater until the pressure reached 52 PSI and then the ball valve was opened immediately to release compressed air which in turn launched the ball, and the distance that the ball traveled was measured.

d) Results and Conclusion - Balls launched at a higher altitude traveled farther than balls launched at lower altitude which proved the fact that the air density is lower at higher altitudes, allowing balls to travel farther.


By Testing With A Homemade Calorimeter, Can I Determine If Higher Or Lower Calorie Foods Provide More Energy?

PHYSICS, ASTRONOMY & MATH

My problem question is, by testing with a homemade calorimeter, can I determine if higher or lower calorie foods provide more energy? I hypothesized that the calorimeter will determine what kind of food provides the most energy because a calorimeter is a highly accurate tool used even in the food industries. I also believe that the higher calorie content a food has, the more energy it will provide. I believe this because the energy value per gram of food that is high in fat and calories is 9 calories, whereas the energy value per gram of food that is high in water and low in calories is 0 calories.
For my experiment, I constructed a homemade calorimeter that consisted of a small can hanging inside of a large can. I positioned one of the high or low-calorie foods on a needle which was inserted into a cork. Then I poured a measured amount of water into the small can and recorded the initial temperature of this water. I used a lighter to burn the food that was positioned on the cork and placed it under the small can of water. I then recorded the final temperature of the water and found the difference between the initial and final temperatures. The bigger the temperature change, the more energy the food provided.
From my testing, I proved that I could use a homemade calorimeter to determine that higher calorie foods provide more energy. When I burned the foods, all of the higher calorie foods would light and burn for the full 30 seconds, but the lower calorie foods would not. The higher calorie foods increased the temperature of the water by an average of 8.95°F, and the peanuts provided the most energy out of all of the foods that I tested.


The Power Inside Us

PHYSICS, ASTRONOMY & MATH

I conducted an experiment to find out if a phone charger could be created that runs entirely from body heat. I tested 5 thermoelectric generators (TEGs), starting with 1 and adding another one each time I tested. I built a unit that attached to the arm and included an area to connect up to 5 TEGs. I cooled down the unit in the fridge, then strapped it on an arm and tested the electricity that the TEGs produced every 15 seconds until the results stabilized. I then attached heat sinks to try to get a greater temperature difference between the 2 sides, or delta. Even though the experiment did show that electricity could be consistently generated, it did not produce near enough current and voltage. I then realized that right now we do not have sophisticated enough technology to create a phone charger that operates in this way. However, there is hope that it will work in the future due to current success using this idea on other products. I had a fun time doing this project and learned a lot about electricity. Science is not always about having your experiment succeed perfectly. Sometimes, it involves trial and error, research, and making small strides towards a bigger discovery. It’s using what is learned to apply to what we don’t know. The additional information may even be able to be used for something completely new and different


Wifi Blockade: Density Does It Best

PHYSICS, ASTRONOMY & MATH

Our project tested what type of materials would block a Wi-Fi signal more than others. Our hypothesis was that denser materials would block the signal more. We first gathered our materials and then set them up around our reciever, a smart phone. We then ran a Wi-Fi signal test and recorded the data. We tested each material multiple times and took the average. We definately proved our hypothesis correct.


Will The Core Affect It?

PHYSICS, ASTRONOMY & MATH

Our experiment question was, "How does the material of an electromagnet affect it's strength?" We changed the core of an electromagnet and we would test it's strength with a gauss meter. We would record it and compare the results.


How Does Temperature Affect A Basketball's Bounce?

PHYSICS, ASTRONOMY & MATH

We measured the effects of temperature on the height of a basketball's bounce.


Does Freezing A Hockey Puck Increase Its Speed On The Ice?

PHYSICS, ASTRONOMY & MATH

Does freezing a hockey puck increase its speed on the ice?


Winging It

PHYSICS, ASTRONOMY & MATH

An aerodynamics project on how the wingspan to fuselage ratio affects the distance of a glider flight.


The Best Bounce

PHYSICS, ASTRONOMY & MATH

The Best Bounce examines the relationship between the air pressure in a ball and how high the ball will bounce.


Sky Glow And Stars

PHYSICS, ASTRONOMY & MATH

The purpose for my Science Fair Project is to show how much light pollution we have in the city compared to the country. People should care about my experiment because it shows how much light from their homes, street lights, and businesses is actually preventing them from seeing stars. My hypothesis was that Fillmore, Utah would have more stars at later times in the night than in the other three cities. I went to four cities to test my hypothesis by taking photos of the sky at three times in the night. My results told me that, in fact, Fillmore had less light pollution than the three other cities. In astronomy, you need to be able to see the stars, so they choose clearer areas to look at the stars. Heavy light pollution makes it so they can’t see the stars well. A website I used was Science Buddies for the idea and for the procedures and the National Lighting Product Information Program for background resources on light pollution.


How Magnet Strength Varies With Temperature

PHYSICS, ASTRONOMY & MATH

I toke 2, 1.75 by .25 inch, magnets and tested the strength of each magnet in four different temperatures. One in the freezer, at room temperature, at boiling water, and in snow. After it was in the temperature I put the magnet in a bowl of 144 paper clips and then I counted how many paper clips were magnetized to the magnet. I tested each magnet five times. The magnet in the freezer picked up the most average number of paper clips. The magnet at boiling water picked up the least average number of paper clips.


Hydroponic Vs Aquaponics

PLANT SCIENCES

my experiment is about how hydroponics and aquaponics can grow agenst each other


A Penny For Your Crops

PLANT SCIENCES

How different quantities of copper sulfate affect the growth of cherry radish plants.


What Are Plants Thirsty For?

PLANT SCIENCES

We grew 5 bamboo plants that we watered with 5 Different liquids to see which one grew the most because bamboo plants give off twice as much oxygen as most household plants.


Plants Vs. Medicine

PLANT SCIENCES

How houseplants are affected by common over-the-counter pain relievers.


Hydroponics: Gardening Without Soil

PLANT SCIENCES

The purpose of this project is to test where hydroponic plants grow better. This project matters to the world because it is a much more efficient way to grow plants. This project is important to mankind because hydroponics may help in a lot of food crises.

I hypothesized that the plants upstairs would be more successful, because they would get direct access to real sunlight. The independent variable will be the location of the plants. The dependent variable will be the height that the plant has grown. In addition, plants will be grown in regular potting soil.
For this project, wool cubes were planted with seeds in two domed terrariums. One was placed in direct sunlight, while the other got its light from a grow light. Fresh water was provided to each terrarium weekly with new minerals and nutrients. In addition, they were aerated. Plant growth was measured in centimeters.
In the end, my hypothesis was incorrect. No plants in direct sunlight had even grown, but 2 plants had grown with artificial light.
To conclude, hydroponics looks easier than it is. It will take a lot of trial and error to get it right. In the future, I would like to control the temperature of the environment. I feel like it was too cold for the plants to germinate. Hydroponics is a useful way to grow crops to feed the world. It is more efficient and more easy to harvest than regular farming, and can do a great deal in helping countries and people in need.


Will It Grow?

PLANT SCIENCES

For this experiment we wanted to see how seeds would grow if they were exposed to harsh temperatures and which seeds germinated the fastest out of all the groups tested. The hypothesis of this experiment was, if seeds are burned, microwaved, and frozen for a certain amount of time, then the ones that were frozen the longest will grow faster than the others, because they will have more water. For this project we experimented on radish seeds by freezing them, microwaving them, burning them, and putting them under a nail light for ten-minute periods. After, we put them in bags with wet napkins on a window to grow. In the end our data showed that the seeds that were microwaved and put under the nail light grew the fastest of the seeds that were tested. Our data did not support our hypothesis because the seeds that were frozen grew slower than most of the other seeds.


Effects Of Color Of Light On Lactuca Satvia Morphology And Metabolism

PLANT SCIENCES

Light is one of the most important variables when it comes to growing plants. I am trying to see how different light can affect a plant’s growth, morphology, and metabolism. I started by growing the plants in different lights to observe growth. Next, I ran tests using a few amino acids and a protein. I found that the cell morphology varies from one colored light to another and also varies based on the part of the plant I observed. I also found that some amino acids vary based on exposed light and region of the plant. I believe that this kind of research can increase crop production in places it would otherwise be extremely unlikely, if not impossible, to grow plants. This could also lead one step closer to food for everyone around the world.


Preserving Cucumbers

PLANT SCIENCES

The average family throws away 25% of their vegetables. Leading up to 1,000 - 2,000 USD. This project is about how to preserve your vegetables, specifically cucumbers. This shows what environment is best for your vegetables, and if you should add in a preservative, steel wool, to your vegetables. Most cucumbers develop "chill factors". They are formed if they are kept in 50 F or lower, then the vegetables starts to decay faster than the one that is in a hot environment. These are all the reasons why I did the experiment and what contribution it had to society.


A Quantitative Comparison Of Water Consumption And Venation Between Normal And Damaged Leaves

PLANT SCIENCES

The veins of a leaf serve an important purpose of providing the leaf with water and nutrients. However, the pattern and plasticity of leaf venation has not been extensively studied. In this study, I examined how different types of damage to leaf veins affect the leaf’s water consumption, growth, and venation.
Damaged leaves need more water, both in net weight and per surface area. Three types of damages are examined (minor, intermediate and severe). When a leaf’s midrib is cut by a small hole, the leaf consumes 23% more water in net weight and 22% more water per surface area. When a leaf’s top is removed (cut in half), the damaged leaf consumes slightly more water in net weight but 94% more per surface area. When a leaf is severely damaged along the major veins, the damaged leaf consumes 30% more water in net weight and at least 60% more per surface area. This suggests that leaf-damage hinders water delivery efficiency and leads to higher water consumption.
Besides water consumption, the effect of damage on leaf’s growth was also quantitatively studied. A hole was punched in a leaf’s midrib when the leaf was still young. As the leaf grew, its vascular pattern changed noticeably. Leaf Vein Density (LVD) is probably the most widely used method in studying leaf’s physiology. It shows a 28% increase of LVD for damaged leaves. Two alternative methods were proposed and used in the study: the number of vascular loops and the Vein Area Ratio. It shows that the number of vascular loops increased by 50% and the vein area ratio increased by 37% for damaged leaves. This suggests that in order to compensate for the damage to the central vein, minor veins become more active and stronger.
A program in Visual Studio C# was developed to facilitate the analysis. This program performs four tasks: 1) Calculate the leaf area, 2) Convert the color image to pure black and white image, 3) Reduce image noise, and 4) Allow vein-tracing with straight lines and then summing up the segment lengths.
In conclusion, this study found that damaged leaves consume more water, and the vascular pattern of a leaf changes when the leaf is damaged at a young stage. The implications of this study are that leaves are extremely adaptable to maintain nutrient delivery to the leaf by strengthening minor veins. This study also suggests that to conserve water, it is important to protect leaves against damage, such as insect bites and wind-tearing.


Effect Of Various Temperatures On Garlic Growth

PLANT SCIENCES

My project was on if different temperatures effect the growth rate of garlic. I have always been interested in growing garlic, and I wanted to find out what was the optimal temperature for growing garlic. My hypothesis was that 80 degrees would do the best, 72 degrees would do the second best. I thought that the 100 and 40 degree garlic plants would hardly grow at all. My experiment had different temperatures according to my hypothesis. I had one bowl at 72 degrees, one at 100 degrees, one at 40 degrees, and one at 80 degrees. My research showed that garlic does not need sunlight or soil to grow, just a bowl of water and marbles. My research also showed garlic grows best in temperatures 65-90 degrees. I put five garlic plants from different cloves into bowls in pitch black. I waited for 6 days, then checked the height, gave each bowl 1/4 cup of water, and found the average of the five plants in each bowl. I did this through the eighth day. My experiment showed that garlic at the temperature of 72 degrees grows the best, so now I know that if I grow garlic again, I should grow it at 72 degrees.


What Is The Effect Of Acidity On Exotic Fruit Growth?

PLANT SCIENCES

Growing bigger and healthier exotic fruit trees is important because they affect so many people’s lives. Some research suggests that varieties such as lemons and mangoes grow better in acidic soils. This project looked at the effects of acidic water on these fruits. Six lemon seeds and six mango pits were collected from store-bought fruit. The husks were removed from both the lemon seeds and mango pits and planted in potting soil. My hypothesis was that vinegar added to the water would help the plants grow better. Half of each group were watered with tap water (about 8 pH) and the half were watered with acid-added water (about 4 pH). The plants were rotated evenly under grow lights so that they all received about the same amount of light exposure. Measurements were made once a week of the plant’s heights, the plant’s leaf count, and the plant’s largest leaf size. For some reason the mangoes did not grow well, but the lemons did. After about two months of growing, the lemon plants watered with acid-added water grew taller and had larger leaves than the tap watered plants. Although more growing time probably is needed, the hypothesis appears correct that higher acidity levels (lower pH) help exotic fruits grow better.


It's Killer

PLANT SCIENCES

The purpose of my science fair project is to find out how many times can a venus flytrap be triggered before it dies. It depends on the kind of nutrients the plants get. My work is important because it helps in nature conservancy. Venus Flytraps helps to provides other carnivorous plants with necessary nutrients. The hypothesis I investigated was “If I trigger the Venus Flytrap three times then the Venus Flytrap will die because it can only be triggered a certain amount of times”. The approach I used to answer my question is that I used four venus flytraps. Two of them were babies and the other two were adults. In my results, I noticed that the venus fly traps that were fed freeze-dried mealworms, only opened three times. The venus fly traps that were fed live crickets, opened four times. The crickets provided the plant with more nutrients than the mealworms and it helped the plant open four times. My science fair project contributes to the area of plant science and I met my objectives.


Methods For Optimal Elimination Of Whiteflies

PLANT SCIENCES

The science fair experiment I conducted was because in one of the greenhouses being used by the school was infested with whiteflies. A solution was needed, therefore I set up an experiment to determine what would attract the most flies and be the most efficient way to exterminate the whiteflies. To do this, I took three different shapes and objects, circles, squares, and fake flowers, in yellow, red, and blue. I covered half of each shape in vaseline. The objects were left in the greenhouse among the poinsettias. I counted all the whiteflies on each object, and calculated the amount of whiteflies per square centimeter. The next phase of my experiment consisted of three balloons, a yellow one, a red one, and a blue one, to test if the whiteflies would be attracted to the latex in the balloon. After the first two sections of my experiment were done, I put my results into practical application, on a larger scale.


Soil Rific Plants

PLANT SCIENCES

We placed five seeds of the herb basil into different types of soil. These include sandy soil, clay soil, peat/sandy moss, and Miracle-gro as a constant, there were three pots of each soil type. We put the seeds in each pot and had twelve pots numbered. After adding the water, we put the plants in a sun filled room, next to a window, with a grow light above the plants. We tracked the growth every four days for 50 days, to see the progress in their growth. This project could have been improved by using different types of plants to compare with, in order to have more diversity with our data, as well as provide a variety of different soil types to test the outcome we have received. Furthermore, we could have improved on the outcome of this project by testing more basil seeds in a different environment. This way we could improve our knowledge by knowing if the environment plays a role in the growth of basil seeds.


No Pressure: The Effects Of Martian Like Atmospheric Pressure On Enzyme Catalyzed Reactions In Plants

PLANT SCIENCES

The idea of colonizing Mars is currently being planned by many different international space agencies. Mars is in the habitable zone of our solar system, meaning that it is predicted that humans could survive there. Several serious problems need to be solved before any long-term colonization is feasible. The essential needs of humans on Mars include energy, water, shelter, and food sources. My project focuses on the feasibility of growing plants on Mars. Humans cannot survive the atmospheric pressure on Mars, and will become incapacitated in less than a minute and will not survive for longer than two minutes. While scientists have shown that plants can grow in the equivalent of Martian soil, it is unclear whether plants need identical shelter as humans. Plants need earth-like temperature control, light and water, but would greenhouses need to be pressurized, or could that energy required for pressurization be used for other essential needs. I tested whether reduced atmospheric pressure similar to that found on Mars is lethal to different types of plants, including; single celled algae, fleshy tomato seedlings and thyme, onion bulb, and woody sage and rosemary. These plants have evolved to survive different conditions on Earth, and so, test which plant characteristics allow plant survival under Mars-like atmospheric pressure, compared to control plants grown under Earth pressure. I utilized three different assays that test plant enzymatic activities as a direct measure of the health of the plants. I found that most plants under Mars atmospheric conditions did as well or better in these assays compared to plants grown at Earth atmospheric pressure. Interestingly, the woody plants did much better than their controls, suggesting that they may be good candidates for food sources on Mars.


How Does The Amount Of Phosphates Effect The Growth Of Dunaliella Salina?

PLANT SCIENCES

Id ecided to study the effects of phosphates on the growth of Dunaliella Salina. Many a thing went south. I tried to find an accurate way of finding the change in growth but still come up with only one way that was slightly testable. That was to measure the growth rate by how much light made it through after a certain amount of light was shot through. After collecting data and analyzing it, I can come to the conclusion that I cannot come to one trustworthy enough to satisfy any claim.


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